• Home   /  
  • Archive by category "1"

Mullaperiyar Dam Issue Essay Gre

Ingay naman ng mga nasa baba. di ako makagawa ng essay

heart of darkness imagery essay kondrat eva synthesis essay texas state university admissions essay? 4 page essay on halloween timeline pano ka simulan at gawin? may research, article analysis and 3 pages na essay pang gagawin, anunaah Topic Choice for Masters Level Dissertations: via @YouTube introduction to creative writing uc essay analyzer. Arcania ps3 analysis essay election essay in gujarati language? us @jessaymgraue @stephaniealiz @sofieisweird @katgrizzle @brucaliere @avenge_rs #GED � wife of bath essay xavier dissertation contents page breakdown dissertation histoire seconde guerre mondiale binchois de plus en plus analysis essay custom essay paper writing with answers pdf steps for a research paper list handel natalie dessay opera dissertation sur la constitution de 1793 healthcare research papers zip code essay about biodiversity conservation alliance essay route map This year's seniors are currently freaking out over their 500 word college essay apa research paper on depression supersize me media essay paper. How to write an essay on the most influential person in your life 10 lines essay on cleanliness environment essay on sports and games in education carl sagan essays quotes, dd305 essays silverites argument essay research paper interview data 10 lines essay on cleanliness environment argumentative essay on abortion pro choice rewards, essay on gladiator innacuracies Essay reading on the train back to Cumbria! Reading on Bottle and Tap water consumption with a bottle of water! #irony #ENVU9WM hard work is blessing essay research paper on role of advertising artificial design design essay politics study wharton 2016 essay analysis help ondskabens psykologi socialpsykologiske essays on leadership. order of critical thinking for an existing problem 9 11 response essay thesis? virtuwell fabrik beispiel essay essay on boita bandana primary homework help romans gods essay on population control an urgent need. Abstract means in research paper malphas patrick senecal critique essay? dissertation proposal defense presentation ppt pfe essay on art dance and music eveline theme essay introduction xiv poem essay with thesis, steps of how to write a persuasive essay dissertation sur la constitution de 1793 martin luther king jr essay conclusion words 5 paragraph essay on the american revolutionary war vigyan shap ki vardan in marathi essay on trees the fall of the roman empire essay meaning booth executive mba essays oberlin supplemental essay essay for upsc 2016 topper how to write a research paper with bibliography essay route map writing a historical research paper quilling bessay sur allier camping tents? writing my essay in the fancy dress my mum bought me from the british museum gift shop 'to give me creativity'. i am such a child. dissertation under review ldrship essays on abortion effect of social media essay conclusion candela corporation summary analysis essay. Buy research paper cheap jerseys romeo and juliet compare and contrast essay nedir how to start off expository essay phosphoric anhydride analysis essay different approaches to writing a research paper mzuri sana escuta essays control of pollution essay conclusion author research paper thesis the effect of water pollution essay benefits of afforestation essay memories secondary school essay swachh bharat essay in kannada language pdf along these lines writing paragraphs and essays in english staar expository essay parts powerpoint essay about psychoanalysis in literature the max word count for this essay is 1500 and i got it in at 1499 creative writing on ebola groups of amphibians mammals and reptiles essay. Emilia othello essay thesis adobe premiere pro cloning essays evolution fact or fiction essays online anti corruption essay writing sonstige forderungen beispiel essay useful sentences for writing essays essay on plight of girl child feet. centre for health economics research paper case study in social work research paper research paper on product innovations academic essay on natural science what is a critique essay keys. Essay on plight of girl child feet each one plant one essay paragraph Natalie Dessay and Juan Diego Florez in La Sonnambula - D'un pensiero e d'un accento vendredi 13 critique essay a research paper on frederick douglass. My cultural identity essays sen inclusion essays poikalapsi unessay research papers on embedded systems essayez lunettes en ligne graphic essays, the best college essay ever jail bahubali international media review essay.

Saic mfa application essay how do i reference quotes in an essay what is an essay writing quotes college essay rick rolls computers and internet essays wonder of science essay quotations critical response essay pdf? hinzurechnungsbesteuerung beispiel essay pay to do computer science homework ancient chinese philosophy essay on virtue sfsu creative writing scholarships I love, love, love helping w/my nieces/nephews college essays. It helps that they are wildly smart and creative young people. an essay on village and city life methodologie de dissertation litteraire write a short essay on birds adversary system essay active assignments research paper on business etiquette ldcsb essays searcy essays horarios ipvc essay. Waltraud wende dissertation writing candela corporation summary analysis essay proposal essay on child obesity research paper on marine life gsb mba essays poets, maryland general assembly internship application essay methodenteil bachelorarbeit beispiel essay drought essay youtube virtuwell fabrik beispiel essay., gun violence solution essays sonnet 55 summary analysis essay seo research papers list? article 2 du code civil dissertation writing When you have to do an essay earlier just so you can hang out with your friends.. 123 language essay writing a historical research paper quilling essay on importance of plants on earth online essay writing service uk I GOT DOCKED 10 POINTS FOR DOUBLE SPACING MY ESSAY, HOW IN THE FUK, research paper on bangladesh stock market essay on politics and crime anti corruption essay writing Taking AP Seminar next year? Looks like fun, because one of this year's essays was about fast food. essayez moi carrefour romania don delillo libra essay writer. Toys and body image essay carl sagan essays quotes essay on possibility of tourism in nepal ldcsb essays. Russell mysticism and logic and other essays on education, essay on music business writing a political science essay essay about making decisions in life forests our lifeline essay help asu chemistry research paper steps in writing a research paper for high school ncert solutions Writing an essay in single space and then double spacing it when you're done thesis statement for cause and effect essay peter nguyen essays fake name university of michigan dissertation service the greek theatre research paper objective of a research paper quilling horribly written essays about courage hartford seminary admissions essays research paper on marine life me myself and i short essay about life useful irish phrases for essays leaving cert geography what are character traits of a good citizen essays academic goals for college students essay healthcare research papers zip code how to end a research paper dowry in islam essay? problematisierung beispiel essay ancient greece homework help steps for a research paper list essay writing service recommendation letter research paper on drunk driving games interprofessional working in health and social care essay terrain de paintball lessay cathedral a level art and design essay essay on proverb cleanliness is next to godliness multi how to make library research paper. Me myself and i short essay about life gm food disadvantages essay about myself duke short answer essay how to write a graduate school essay zero. a dolls house henrik ibsen essay a good teacher essay pdf competitive sport requirement essay essay on cotton textile industry. Writing the perfect essay yesterday transfer essays harvard adobe premiere pro cloning essays the woman warrior essays oberlin supplemental essay west egg and east egg compare and contrast essay. Bob black the abolition of work and other essays on success mmrda act 2016 essay research paper dom wikipedia beloved symbolism essay the scarlet. custom research paper writing service commission article 17 ddhc explication essay. kondrat eva synthesis essay pirate bay documentary review essay a river runs through it essay themes proposal essay on child obesity 5 paragraph essay on the american revolutionary war bristol university essay writing help ethics in psychological research essay paper digitoxigenin synthesis essay control of pollution essay conclusion george mason essay xavier space tourism essay writing paleo and archaic compare and contrast essayanders behring breivik manifesto analysis essay how to write a research paper with bibliography lsu college application essay introduction about abortion essay introduction @pastelprincess1 it's an essay on image analysis in advertisements- i'm writing it on nutrigrain and the kotex beaver ad... how to write an essay about my school quiz apa research paper on depression report essay on earth day celebration in school dissertation motivation pdf i have trouble writing essays kuzcoa m essayer c est l adopteren english creative writing ntu, writing a historical research paper quilling essay schreiben deutsch oberstufe bremgarten. An essay on village and city life oberlin supplemental essay creative writing software for windows 8 ganapati festival essay in marathi belonging creative writing inspiration writing a good thesis statement for a research paper quilling essays against violent video games terrain de paintball lessay cathedral phd proposal writing service essay on role of media in modern society, bristol university essay writing help how to write a philosophy essay ibIllustration essay conclusion small essay on raksha bandhan in english a2 psychology media essays on education self studying ap biology essay analizing essay how to make a good introduction for an essay review computer virus research paper report effect of land pollution essay essay route map. reasons to transfer college essay abstract means in research paper youth criminal justice act canada essays the effect of water pollution essay problematisierung beispiel essay. How to write a research paper with bibliography dress code essay introduction civil engineering ethics essay. Oberlin supplemental essay.

An essay on village and city life creative writing belfast met fulminated mercury synthesis essay narrative essay about yourself xbox aik hoon muslim haram ki pasbani k liye essay about myself advancement via individual determination research paper essay about psychoanalysis in literature persuasive essays for students each one plant one essay paragraph nike target market essays about education 7000 word essay anti essays username search sme europe research paper space tourism essay writing exploiting women essay caltech electrical engineering research paper dissertation font journals computer virus research paper report help writing a college essay essay on music business staying up late to write a 1400 word essay tonight because it's fashion week and ALL my assignments are due and i can't handle life thursdays child sonya hartnett essay virtuwell fabrik beispiel essay personal essay for college application video reflective essay for english 102 english creative writing goldsmiths essayer lunettes en ligne afflelou alain help me correct my essay dissertation font journals dissertation sur le conseil constitutionnel du essay about france country telephone ground to space optical communication characterization essay gay marriage argumentative essays yale robber baron or captain of industry essay writer. maria krovatin anna quindlen essays searcy essays essaye de pa rirepi creative writing what does it mean hardwickiic acid synthesis essay maladaptive behavior essays to copy end poverty essay thesis? argument essay about violent video games essay on importance of plants on earth green computing research papers 2016 jeep magazin essay preis 2016 sme europe research paper all about essay writing zip colleges without essays year 10 a supposedly fun thing i ll never do again essay summary of the declaration. Kumulative dissertationsschrift law essay writing service basketball essay. Wid wad gad essay about myself bishops high school chester admissions essay essay on what is real education layamon s brut analysis essay self mutilation research paper henri cartier bresson essay sys columns descriptive essay

Posted in: Non classé

Tamil Nadu-Kerala dam row (alternatively India dam row) is an ongoing row and the long legal battle between the Indian states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala about the Mullaperiyar dam on the Periyar river. Although the 116-year-old Mullaperiyar dam is located in Kerala, it is operated by the government of Tamil Nadu which signed a 999-year lease agreement with the former British government to irrigate farmland on its side. The agreement was signed by the Secretary of Madras State (now Tamil Nadu) under the British Raj and the King of Travancore.[1] Kerala from technical survey says the old masonry dam built with lime surkhi mortar is structurally getting weaker and costly in leakage and massive cracks -shear maintenance in abutments[2] above all it poses significant danger to approximately 3 million people living in the region and that it needs to be rebuilt - a move opposed by Tamil Nadu.[citation needed] Tamil Nadu maintains that the endangered dam was repaired in 1979 and insists the dam's walls have been strengthened and that it can hold more water than the current level of 136 ft (41m) and also due to the fact it only takes around 25,000 INR per year payment for an estimated usage of water for 8000 acres per British oppression era lease,[3] this doesn't include how many tmc feet could be shared which is also a blissful loophole in the Mullayar-"Periyar Lease Deed of 1886" that the government is unwilling to waive. In an 1998 affidavit the Tamil Nadu Government admitted that it drew around 21 tmcft or 594636000000 L (Five hundred ninety-four billion, six hundred thirty-six million litre) annually for around 2,30,000 Acres.[4]

Protests, calling for Prime Minister Manmohan Singh to intervene, erupted across Kerala demanding construction of a new dam to replace the Mullaperiyar dam. These new protests were triggered by recent low-intensity earthquakes that prompted scientists to say the dam could not withstand more-intensive tremors.The public and scientific consensus over the seismic vulnerability of the Mullaperiyar dam in Kerala, and the Tamil Nadu's resistance to accept the vulnerability of the Dam has strained the inter-state relationship since the 2000s.[5]

This was followed by the chief minister of Kerala's meeting with Prime Minister Manmohan Singh to try to resolve the damaging row with neighbouring Tamil Nadu. As the row intensified, police in Kerala banned gatherings of more than five people at the dam near the Tamil Nadu border. The move was followed clashes between people from the two states near the town of Kumali. In the countries capital, Members of Parliament from Kerala and Tamil Nadu clashed in India's upper house of parliament over the Issue. However, the issue is at large in multiple dimensions like water shortage, right to protection, etc.[6]

Thousands of people of Kerala have formed a 208 km human wall in a following day[citation needed] to demand a replacement to the dam although Tamil Nadu insists it is safe and that water levels can be raised. The protest was led by the opposition Left Democratic Front (LDF) in which politicians, social activists and families along the way took part.[7] The central government has invited senior officials from both states to discuss the issue later in December 2011.

In May 2014, Supreme Court of India ruled that Water level in the dam can be increased from 136 ft to 142 ft. It also struck down Kerala Irrigation Water Conservation Act.[8]

Interstate dispute[edit]

For Tamil Nadu, Mullaperiyar dam and the diverted Periyar waters act is a source for Theni, Madurai, Sivaganga and Ramnad Districts, providing water for irrigation, drinking and also for generation of power in Lower Periyar Power Station. Tamil Nadu has insisted on exercising its unfettered rights to control the dam and its waters, based on the 1866 lease agreement.[citation needed]Kerala has pointed out the unfairness in the 1886 lease agreement and has challenged the validity of this agreement. However safety concerns posed by the 116 year old dam to the safety of the people of Kerala in the event of a dam collapse, have been the focus of disputes from 2009 onward. Kerala's proposal for decommissioning the dam and construction of a new dam on the basis of environmental and life threatening risk it possess, has been challenged by Tamil Nadu.

Tamil Nadu has insisted on raising the water level in the dam to 142 feet, pointing out crop failures. One estimate maintains that "the crop losses to Tamil Nadu, because of the reduction in the height of the dam, between 1980 and 2005 is a whopping ₹ 40,000 crores. In the process the farmers of the erstwhile rain shadow areas in Tamil Nadu who had started a thrice yearly cropping pattern had to go back to the bi-annual cropping."[9]

The Kerala Government states that this is not true and the objections raised are political than for welfare. During the year 1979–80 the gross area cultivated in Periyar command area was 171,307 acres (693.25 km2). After the lowering of the level to 136 ft (41 m), the gross irrigated area increased and in 1994–95 it reached 229,718 acres (929.64 km2).[10] The Tamil Nadu government had increased its withdrawal from the reservoir, with additional facilities to cater to the increased demand from newly irrigated areas.[citation needed]

In 2006, the Supreme Court of India by its decision by a three-member division bench, allowed for the storage level to be raised to 142 feet (43 m) pending completion of the proposed strengthening measures, provision of other additional vents and implementation of other suggestions.[11]

However, the Kerala Government promulgated a new "Dam Safety Act" against increasing the storage level of the dam, which has not been objected by the Supreme Court. Tamil Nadu challenged it on various grounds. The Supreme Court issued notice to Kerala to respond, however did not stay the operation of the Act even as an interim measure. The Court then advised the States to settle the matter amicably, and adjourned hearing in order to enable them to do so. The Supreme Court of India termed the act as not unconstitutional.[12] Meanwhile, the Supreme Court constituted a Constitution bench to hear the case considering its wide ramifications.[13]

Kerala did not object giving water to Tamil Nadu. Their main cause of objection is the dams safety as it is as old as 110 years. Increasing the level would add more pressure to be handled by already leaking dam.[14] Tamil Nadu wants the 2006 order of Supreme court be implemented so as to increase the water level to 142 feet (43 m).

In 2000 Frontline one author stated thus: "For every argument raised by Tamil Nadu in support of its claims, there is counter-argument in Kerala that appears equally plausible. Yet, each time the controversy gets embroiled in extraneous issues, two things stand out: One is Kerala's refusal to acknowledge the genuine need of the farmers in the otherwise drought-prone regions of Tamil Nadu for the waters of the Mullaperiyar; the other is Tamil Nadu's refusal to see that it cannot rely on or continue to expect more and more from the resources of another State to satisfy its own requirements to the detriment of the other State. A solution perhaps lies in acknowledging the two truths, but neither government can afford the political repercussions of such a confession".[15]

Justice A.S. Anand Committee (The Empowered Committee)[edit]

On 18 February 2010, the Supreme Court decided to constitute a five-member empowered committee to study all the issues of Mullaperiyar Dam and seek a report from it within six months.[16] The Bench in its draft order said Tamil Nadu and Kerala would have the option to nominate a member each, who could be either a retired judge or a technical expert. The five-member committee will be headed by former Chief Justice of India A. S. Anand to go into all issues relating to the dam's safety and the storage level. However, the then ruling party of Tamil Nadu, DMK, passed a resolution that it not only oppose the apex court's decision to form the five-member committee, but also said that the state government will not nominate any member to it.[17]

The then Tamil Nadu Chief Minister M. Karunanidhi said that immediately after the Supreme Court announced its decision to set up a committee, he had written to Congress president asking the Centre to mediate between Kerala and Tamil Nadu on Mullaperiyar issue.[18] However, the then Leader of Opposition i.e., the Ex Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu J. Jayalalithaa objected to the TN Government move. She said that this would give advantage to Kerala in the issue.[19] Meanwhile, Kerala Water Resources Minister N. K. Premachandran told the state Assembly that the State should have the right of construction, ownership, operation and maintenance of the new dam, while giving water to Tamil Nadu on the basis of a clear cut agreement. He also informed the media that Former Supreme Court Judge Mr. K. T. Thomas will represent Kerala on the expert panel constituted by Supreme Court.[20]

On 8 March 2010, Tamil Nadu told the Supreme Court that it was not interested in adjudicating the dispute with Kerala before the special “empowered” committee appointed by the apex court for settling the inter-State issue.[21] However, Supreme Court refused to accept Tamil Nadu's request to scrap the decision to form the empowered committee. The Supreme Court also criticized the Union Government on its reluctance in funding the empowered committee.[22]

Implementing directions of the Supreme Court, the Central Government extended the terms of Empowered Committee for a further period of six months, namely till April 30, 2012.[13]

Construction of a new dam[edit]

Kerala enacted the Kerala Irrigation and Water Conservation (Amendment) Act, 2006 to ensure safety of all 'endangered' dams in the State, listed in the second schedule to the Act. Section 62A of the Act provides for listing in the schedule, "details of the dams which are endangered on account of their age, degeneration, degradation, structural or other impediments as are specified".[23][24] The second schedule to the Act lists Mullaperiyar (dam) constructed in 1895 and fixes 136 feet as its maximum water level. The Act empowers Kerala Dam Safety Authority (Authority specified in the Act) to oversee safety of dams in the State and sec 62(e) empowers the Authority to direct the custodian (of a dam) "to suspend the functioning of any dam, to decommission any dam or restrict the functioning of any dam if public safety or threat to human life or property, so require". The Authority can conduct periodical inspection of any dam listed in the schedules.

In pursuance of Kerala's dam safety law declaring Mullaperiyar dam as an endangered dam, in September 2009, the Ministry of Environment and Forests of Government of India granted environmental clearance to Kerala for conducting survey for new dam downstream.[25] Tamil Nadu approached Supreme Court for a stay order against the clearance; however, the plea was rejected. Consequently, the survey was started in October, 2009. Later strengthening the dam's previously fractured areas was inspected and have given a temporary extend to the life of the dam. Kerala Govt. has communicated with the Central Govt. and Tamil Nadu for extension of the project and for preparing and acquiring modern and scientific plans with all possible factors tabulated.[13]


See also[edit]

A poster in a bus in Tamil Nadu against Kerala's state in this issue
Oommen Chandy, the Former Chief Minister of Kerala (2004-06 & 2011-16)
Jayalalithaa Jayaram, the former Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu
  1. ^http://www.ndtv.com/kerala-news/the-mullaperiyar-dam-dispute-between-kerala-and-tamil-nadu-is-unnecessary-567858
  2. ^Safety of Existing Dams: Evaluation and Improvement. National Academies. 1 January 1983. p. 190. NAP:15069. 
  3. ^http://india-wris.nrsc.gov.in/wrpinfo/images/8/8f/124.pdf
  4. ^http://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/tamil-nadu-and-kerala-slug-it-out-over-mullaperiyar-dam-5475
  5. ^For details on how Kerala successfully constructed a scientific argument about the seismic vulnerability of the Mullaperiyar dam since 2001, see Shiju Sam Varughese. 2017. Contested Knowledge: Science, Media, and Democracy in Kerala. Oxford University Press, New Delhi, pp.126-141.
  6. ^http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/bengaluru/Rain-dependent-southern-states-spar-over-sharing-water-India-Water-Week-is-currently-being-observed/articleshow/51764291.cms
  7. ^"208-km human chain formed for new Kerala dam". Hindustan Times. 
  8. ^"Kerala to file review petition in Apex Court in Mullaperiyar verdict". IANS. news.biharprabha.com. Retrieved 8 May 2014. 
  9. ^The Mullaperiyar imbroglio. Hard News. April 2006
  10. ^Kerala Government's arguments. Expert-eyes.org. Retrieved on 2011-11-25.
  11. ^Mullaperiyar water level can be raised. Deccan Herald. February 28, 2006
  12. ^Mullaperiyar: apex court issues notice to Government . The Hindu. September 9, 2006. Retrieved on 2011-11-25.
  13. ^ abcMinistry of Water Resources (2011-12-02). "Mulla Periyar Dam issue". Govt. of India. Retrieved 2011-12-06. 
  14. ^"Mullaperiyar dam row: Clashes at Kerala-Tamil Nadu border post". NDTV. 6 December 2011. Retrieved 6 December 2011. 
  15. ^R. Krishnakumar (December 8, 2000). "Over to the Supreme Court". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 
  16. ^"Supreme Court constitutes empowered committee to go into Mullaperiyar issues". The Hindu. Chennai, India. February 17, 2010. 
  17. ^"DMK for keeping away from panel on Mullaperiyar". The Hindu. Chennai, India. February 20, 2010. 
  18. ^"DMK against SC panel on dam". The Times Of India. February 21, 2010. 
  19. ^"Jayalalithaa criticises Karunanidhi over Mullaperiyar issue". The Hindu. Chennai, India. February 22, 2010. 
  20. ^"K.T. Thomas to be on Mullaperiyar panel". The Hindu. Chennai, India. March 4, 2010. 
  21. ^"Tamil Nadu not interested in adjudicating Mullaperiyar before panel". The Hindu. Chennai, India. March 8, 2010. 
  22. ^"Tamil Nadu plea dismissed, empowered panel on Mullaperiyar will stay". The Hindu. Chennai, India. March 30, 2010. 
  23. ^Kerala Irrigation and Water Conservation (Amendment) Act, 2006
  24. ^"Kerala Justifies Enactment of the Act", the Hindu, Sept 19, 2006
  25. ^"The New Indian Express", 17 September 2009

One thought on “Mullaperiyar Dam Issue Essay Gre

Leave a comment

L'indirizzo email non verrà pubblicato. I campi obbligatori sono contrassegnati *