• Home   /  
  • Archive by category "1"

Canthium Parviflorum Descriptive Essay

C. parviflorum was well-studied for various pharmacological properties. Ethanolic leaf extract was neutralized in vitro and in vivo anti-cancer activity on DLA and HeLa cell lines (Prabhu et al., 2011). C. parviflorum possesses anti-oxidant activity in alloxan-induced diabetic rats (Sathishkumar et al., 2008). Canthium coromadelicum leaves posses antimicrobial and anti-HIV activity (Chinnaiyan et al., 2013).

In the present study, partial purification was carried out using TLC to identify the bioactive compound against the E. carinatus or N. naja venom. TLC separated band 5 showed maximum %inhibition compared to other bands and inhibited all the enzyme activity.

Snake venom is a complex mixture of hydrolytic enzymes and some site specific enzymes. Phospholipase A2, metalloprotenase, 5’ nucleotidase are major hydrolytic and hyaluronidase is a site specific enzymes responsible for earlier reaction of envenomation (Ushanandini et al., 2006). Hyaluronidase known as spreading factor results in membrane degradation of hyaluron lead to easy spreading of other toxic enzymes. The degradation of extracellular matrix is a continuous process and anti-venom fails to neutralize the local tissue damages (Homma and Tu, 1970; Girish et al., 2004). Lethal toxicity and pharmacological activity is combined action of all these toxic enzymes. Various plants have been studied for inhibition of these toxic enzymes effects by in vitro using various solvent extracts. In vitro inhibitory activity of Carissa spinarum leaf extracts against Krait and Viper russellitoxic snake venom enzymes was studied (Janardhan et al., 2014). Tabernaemontana alternifolia inhibits in vitroN. naja and E. carinatus venom enzyme activities (Vineetha et al., 2014).

Numerous plants species have been scientifically investigated for quest new phytoconstitute responsible for snake bite. Aristolochia species has been studied against Trimeresurus flavoviridis and Viper russellii venom effects (Vishwanath et al., 1987). Aristolochic acid, a bioactive phytochemical from Aristolochia, inhibited phospholipase which is responsible for edema formation and other pharmacological activities (Vishwanath et al., 1987). 2-OH-4-methoxy benzoic acid and lupeol acetate was isolated from Hemidesmus indicus which possesses potent inhibition activity against N. naja venom (Alam and Gomes, 1998; Chatterjee et al., 2006). A multiform of glycoprotein isolated from Mucuna pruriens seeds neutralized E. carinatus venom effects (Guerranti et al., 2004).

The sequential ethyl acetate extract of C. parviflorum exhibited enzyme activities (unpublished data). In the present study TLC separated bands of methanol root extract of C. parviflorum neutralized all the enzyme activities from both the venoms. The chromatogram of TLC separated C. parviflorum methanol root extract shows 9 prominent peak in retention time range between 6.7-35.4 min. In the previous studies, C. parviflorum ethanol leaf extract was reported 22 constituents present in the leaves and D-mannitol and squalene responsible for anti-cancer properties (Prabhu et al., 2013). GC-MS reveals presence of some active phytoconstituents which has various biological activities. Octadecanoic acid methyl ester, 13-docosenoic acid, methyl ester, (Z)-(CAS) have various biological activities present in the TLC separated methanol root extract. Presence of hexadecadecanoic acid ethyl ester compound in leaves were reported in ethanolic extract of C. parviflorum leaves (Prabhu et al., 2013). An oleic ester derivative 9-octadecanoic acid (z)-phenylmethyl ester was reported in Sauropus bacciformis stem (Jenecius et al., 2012). 11(Methylthio)canthin-6-one is an alkaloid, the probable compound in 6.7 RT is not reported in Rubiaceae family to best of our knowledge. Two canthin-6-one alkaloids isolated from Eurycoma longifolia from Simaroubaceae family have anti-cancer effects in HT-1080 human sarcoma cell-lines (Miyake et al., 2010). Quinolinealkaloid is reported in Rubiaceae family which also the probable compound at RT 4.3 min but area % is 0.1. In the presence of siloxane compound might be due to interference of silica which was used during TLC separation.

Partially purified C. parviflorum methanol root extract inhibited phosphomonoesterase, phosphodiesterase, acetylcholinesterase, hyaluronidase, protease, phospholipase A2, 5’ nucleotidase activities of E. carinatus and N. naja venom. TLC separated band 5 was promising when compare to other bands. The GC-MS analysis revealed presence of bioactive phytocompounds which might be responsible for neutralization of toxic enzymes. As per our knowledge and scientific literature survey, C. parviflorumn was not studied for antivenom properties. Therefore, the present study adds on for an additional scientific validation to the society.


Alam, MI, Gomes A. Adjuvant effect and antiserum action potentiation by a (herbal) compound 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzoic acid isolated from the root extract of the Indian medicinal plant ‘Sarsaparilla’ (Hemidesmus indicus R. Br.,). Toxicon 1998; 36: 1423-31.

Banerjee RN. Poisonous snakes and their venoms, symptomatology and treatment. In: Progress in clinical medicine. Ahuja MMS (ed). Second series. India, Heinemann, 1978, pp 136-79.

Bawaskar HS. Snake venoms and antivenom: Critical supply issues. J Assoc Physicians. 2004; 52: 11-13.

Bessey OA, Lowry OH, Brock MJ. A method for the rapid determination of alkaline phosphates with five cubic millimeters of serum. J Biol Chem. 1946; 164: 321-29.

Cannon R, Ruha AM, Kashani J. Acute hypersensitivity reactions associated with administration of crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab antivenom. Ann Emerg Med. 2008; 51: 407-11.

Chatterjee I, Chakravarthy AK and Gomes A. Daboia russelli and Naja kaouthia venom neutralization by lupeol acetate isolated from the root extract of Indian sarsaparilla Hemidesmus indicus R. Br J Ethanopharmacol. 2006; 106: 38-43.

Chinnaiyan SK, Subramanian MR, Kumar SV, Chandu AN, Deivasigamani K. Antimicrobial and anti-HIV activity of extracts of Canthium coromandelicum (Burm. f.) Alston leaves. J Phar Res. 2013; 7: 25-31.

Ellman GL, Courtney KD, Andres VJ, Featherstone RM. A new and rapid colorimetric determination of acetylcholinesterase activity. Biochem Pharmacol. 1961; 7: 88-95.

Fiske CH, Subbarow Y. The colorimetric determination of phosphorus. J Biol Chem. 1925; 66: 375-400.

Girish KS, Shashidharamurthy R, Nagaraju S, Gowda TV, Kemparaju K. Isolation and characterization of hyaluronidase a ‘Spreading factor’ from Indian cobra (Naja naja) venom. Biochimie 2004; 86: 193-202.

Gomes A, Das R, Sarkhel S, Mishra R, Mukherjee S, Bhattacharya S. Herbs and herbal constituent active against snake bite. Indian J Exp Biol. 2010; 48: 865-78.

Greenberg DM. Plant proteolytic enzymes. In: Methods in enzymology. Colowick SP, Kalpan NO (eds). New York, Academic Press Inc., 1955, pp 54-64.

Guerranti R, Aguiyi JC, Ogueli IG, Onorati G, Neri S, Rosati F, Del Buono F, Lampariello R, Pagani R, Marinello E. Protec-tion of Mucuna pruriens seed against Echis carinatus venom is exerted through a multiform glycoprotein whose oligosaccharide chains are functional in this role. Biochem Biophy Res Commun. 2004; 323: 484-90.

Hiremath VT, Taranath. Traditional phytotherapy for snake bites by tribes of Chitradurga District, Karnataka, India. Ethnobot Leaflets. 2010; 14: 120-25.

Homma M, Tu AT. Antivenin for the treatment of local tissue damage due to the Southeast Asian snakes: Ineffectiveness in the prevention of local tissue damage in mice after envenomation. Am J Tr Med Hg. 1970; 19: 880.

Janardhan B, Shrikanth VM, Mirajkar KK, More SS. In vitro screening and evaluation of antivenom phytochemicals from Azima tetracantha Lam. leaves against Bungarus caeruleus and Vipera russelli. J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis. 2014; 20: 12.

Jenecius A, Uthayakumaria F, Mohan VR. GC-MS determination of bioactive components of Sauropus bacciformis blume (Euphorbiaceae). J Curr Chem Pharm S. 2012; 2: 347-58.

Lo TB, Chen YH, Lee CY. Chemical studies of Formosan cobra (Naja naja atra) venom. Part 1. Chromatographic separation of crude venom on CM-sephadex and preliminary protec-tion by Mikania laevigata (guaco) extract against the toxicity of Philodryas olfersii snake venom characterization of its components. J Chinese Chem Soc. 1966; 13: 165-77.

Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ. Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem. 1951; 193: 265-75.

Miyake K, Tezuka Y, Awale S, Li F, Kadota S. Canthin-6-one alkaloids and a tirucallanoid from Eurycoma longifolia and their cytotoxic activity against a human HT-1080 fibrosar-coma cell line. Nat Prod Commun. 2010; 5: 17-22.

Parinitha M, Srinivasa BH, Shivana MB. Medicinal plant wealth of local communities in some villages in Shimoga District of Karnatka. Indian J Ethnopharmacol. 2005; 98: 307-12.

Pukrittayakamee S, Warrell DA, Desakorn V, McMichael AJ, White NJ, Bunnag D. The hyaluronidase activities of some Southeast Asian snake venoms. Toxicon 1988; 26: 629-30.

Prabhu PT, Panneerselvam P, Selvakumari S, Sivaraman D. In vitro and in vivo anti-cancer activity of ethanolic extract of C. parviflorum Lam on DLA and HeLa cell lines. Int J Drug Dev Res. 2011; 3: 280-85.

Prabhu PT, Panneerselvam P, Suresh P, Clement R, Atlee W, Balasubramanian S. GC-MS analysis of ethanolic extract of C. parviflorum Lamk leaf. J Appl Pharm Sci. 2013; 3: 166-68.

Rowe M, de Gast GC, Platts-Mills TA, Asherson GL, Webster AD, Johnson SM. Lymphocyte 5'-nucleotidase in primary hypogammaglobulinaemia and cord blood. Clin Exp Immunol. 1980; 39: 337-43.

Sathish Kumar T, Shanmugam S, Palvannan, Bharathikumar VM. Evaluation of anti-oxidant properties of C. parviflorum Lam. leaves. Nat Prod Rad. 2008; 7: 122-26.

Tan NH, Tan CS. Acidimetric assay of phospholipase A2 using egg yolk suspension as substrate. Anal Biochem. 1988; 170: 282-88.

Ushanandini SS, Nagaraju K, Harish Kumar, Vedavathi M, Machiah DK, Kemparaju K, Vishwanath BS, Gowda TV, Girish KS. The anti-snake venom properties of Tamarindus indica (Leguminosae) seed extract. Phytother Res. 2006; 20: 851-58.

Vineetha MS, Bhavya J, Mirjakar KM, More SS. In vitro evaluation of active phytochemicals from Tabernaemontana alternifolia (Roxb) root against the Naja naja and Echis carinatus Indian snake venom. J Biol Active Prod Nature. 2014; 4: 286-94.

Vishwanath BS, Kini RM, Gowda TV. Characterization of three edema inducing phospholipase A2 enzymes from Habu (Trimeresurus flavoviridis) venom and their interaction with the alkaloid aristolochic acid. Toxicon 1987; 25: 501–15.

Warrell DA, Davidson NM, Greenwood BM. Poisoning by bites of Saw-scaled viper or carpet viper (Echis carinatus) in Nigeria. Q J Med. 1977; 181: 33–62.

World Health Organisation. Rabies and envenomings: A neglected public health issue. Geneva, 2007.

Disclosure forms provided by the authors are available

Available online on December 16, 2016

Беккер заметил, что на ней дорогие вещи. - И у тебя нет кредитной карточки. - Есть, но отец ее заблокировал. Он думает, что я балуюсь наркотиками. - А это не так? - спросил Беккер холодно, глядя на ее припухший локоть.

One thought on “Canthium Parviflorum Descriptive Essay

Leave a comment

L'indirizzo email non verrà pubblicato. I campi obbligatori sono contrassegnati *