## Zhou Bicycle Company Case Study

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#### Case Study

...University of Phoenix Material Case Study Analysis Paper Prepare a 1,400 to 1,750-word case study analysis paper based on the University of Phoenix Material, “Case Study for Student Analysis,” located in Week Two of the COMM/215 page. Below is a detailed description explaining how to prepare a case study analysis paper. _____________________________________________________________________________ Typically written in narrative form, a case sets forth, in a factual manner, the events and organizational circumstances surrounding a particular managerial situation. Placing the reader at the scene of the action, the real events presented provide an opportunity to help evaluate alternative courses of action. Case analysis is used in academics to help you demonstrate your ability to evaluate situations critically, to apply concepts you have learned in a class, to solve problems, and to communicate your findings and conclusions. The purpose of this exercise is to introduce you to case studies and the analysis process, and to a proper format for writing the case study analysis report. Try not to worry about trying to find the "right answer" to a case. Usually, there is no single right answer. Most cases are intentionally ambiguous and can be viewed from many different perspectives. Several feasible solutions are usually available to any give case. The best solution is the one you can best support with thoughtful analysis, logical arguments, and substantiating evidence from......

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#### Case Study Case Study Case Study

...This case study is an excellent example of how different types of parties can be brought together in a large scale transaction and how the original energy of those early meetings can be lost over time. I imagine that when Anthony Athanas was purchasing those old piers back in the 1960s many, if not all, of his colleagues, friends, and family members told him that he was off his rocker. I’m sure Athanas was looking at this land as his family’s ticket to financial prosperity and somewhat of a legacy that he could leave to his descendants for years and years to come. One of the items I wish the case would have divulged is the amount of money that Athanas had invested in the properties. For me this information would have given an insight to his net worth and how much he had riding on this investment. I assume it was substantial given his actions later in the process. Twenty years later Athanas’ dreams came true and all those naysayers were more than likely green with envy. The amount of pride Athanas’ had in his investment at that moment had to have been insurmountable. Being approached by a big time real estate development company and their extremely wealthy client, Hyatt Corporation, must have made Athanas feel larger than life and made him feel like something he isn’t, which is a developer himself. The case doesn’t give much insight into whether Athanas had any representation or anyone consulting him throughout the process. From the beginning, I saw this as matchup...

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#### Case Study

...Yin (2005) suggested that researchers should decide whether to do single-case or multiple-case studies and chose to keep the case holistic or have embedded sub-cases. This two-by-two combination can produce four basic designs for case studies. When selecting a case for a case study, researchers often use information-oriented sampling , as opposed to random sampling [3]. This is because an average case is often not the richest in information. Extreme or atypical cases reveal more information because they activate more basic mechanisms and more actors in the situation studied. In addition, from both an understanding-oriented and an action-oriented perspective, it is often more important to clarify the deeper causes behind a given problem and its consequences than to describe the symptoms of the problem and how frequently they occur. Random samples emphasizing representativeness will seldom be able to produce this kind of insight; it is more appropriate to select some few cases chosen for their validity. But this isnt always the case. Three types of information-oriented cases may be distinguished: Extreme or deviant cases Critical cases Paradigmatic cases. [edit]Critical case A critical case can be defined as having strategic importance in relation to the general problem. For example, an occupational medicine clinic wanted to investigate whether people working with organic solvents suffered brain damage. Instead of choosing a representative sample among all those......

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#### Case Study

...1. ------------------------------------------------- Determine the main objective of the case study. You may be writing a case study to fulfill an academic requirement or to help solve problems in real-life situations. An academic assignment typically will come with a specific objective and instructions, whereas a professional assignment might require you to define the objective. ------------------------------------------------- Ad 2. ------------------------------------------------- 2 ------------------------------------------------- Select the best approach. * Choose an analytical approach to increase awareness. In the preliminary stages of solving management problems, an analytical case study might best meet the goal of alerting upper management to core facts and issues. An analytical case study primarily focuses on what has occurred and why. * Select a problem-solving approach to pinpoint and solve major issues. If the goal is to make solution recommendations, write a problem-solving case study that clearly outlines problems and solutions. 1. ------------------------------------------------- 3 ------------------------------------------------- Conduct research for your case study. Examine the facts, dynamics, communications and all relevant aspects of the particular situation. Research might involve interviewing people in an organization, reviewing written documents or looking up relevant statistics. Method 2 of 5: Set the Scope for Readers...

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#### Case Study

...Select a case study from the University of Phoenix Material: Young and Middle Adulthood Case Studies located on the student website. Write a 700- to 1,050-word paper describing the influence the experiences have made on the person’s development. Address the following in your paper: Discuss the family, social, and intimate relationships of the person in the case study. Identify any role changes that have occurred. Explain the immediate and future effect of healthy or unhealthy habits practiced by this person. Include at least two peer-reviewed resources. Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines. University of Phoenix Material Young and Middle Adulthood Case Studies Read the following case studies in order to complete the Week Three Individual Assignment. Case Study 1: Jackson Jackson is a 25-year old male who has recently been admitted to a substance abuse program in Chicago, Illinois. He has been arrested several times for possession of a controlled substance but has not served any time in jail. He grew up in a single-parent household with his mother, Tina. Tina, 45, is employed as a high school teacher; his biological father is not involved in his life. Tina’s boyfriend, Michael, often attempts to serve as a father figure to Jackson. Jackson went to college immediately after high school, focused on a degree in chemistry. In high school, he was a good student who earned A’s and B’s in most courses. After a car accident, a slight head......

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#### Case Study

...A Case Study by any Other Name Cathy Foster Liberty University A Case Study by any other Name Researchers have different methods of observing their subjects. Among the most popular is the case study. Case studies are used a lot in psychology and one of the most famous psychologists that used case studies to detail the private lives of his patients was Sigmund Freud. What is a Case Study? “A case study is an observational method that provides a description of an individual” (Cozby & Bates, 2012). During a case study the individual is usually a person however that’s not always the situation. The case study can also be a setting, which can include a school, business, or neighborhood. A naturalistic observational study can sometimes be called a case study and these two studies can overlap (Cozby & Bates, 2012). Researchers report information from the individual or other situation, which is from a “real-life context and is in a truthful and unbiased manner” (Amerson, 2011). What are some Reasons for Using a Case Study Approach? There are different types of case studies. One reason to use a case study is when a researcher needs to explain the life of an individual. When an important historical figure’s life needs explaining this is called psychobiography (Cozby & Bates, 2012). The case study approach help answer the “how”, “what”, and “why” questions (Crowe, 2011). What are Some Advantages and Disadvantages to the Case Study Approach? Some......

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#### Case Study

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#### Case Study

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...The Case Study Approach Linda P. Williams Liberty University Online Author Note Linda P. Williams, Department of Psychology, Liberty University Online Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Linda P. Williams, Department of Psychology, Liberty University Online, 1971 University Blvd, Lynchburg, VA 24515, E-mail: lwilliams91@liberty.edu The Case Study Approach Introduction At some point during the pursuit of a degree psychology, the time comes when a student must learn various research techniques. One of the many approaches is case study, which this paper will focus on. Areas of discussion include reasons for using a case study, advantages/disadvantages to the approach, and ways acquire information to perform a case study. The essence of a case study A case study is used to offer a mental accounting of a person, school, neighborhood, business, or group of individuals over the course of time, way of research. It is sometimes referred to as naturalistic observation, but does not always follow the same protocol. Mental accounting is done by means of observation of various behavior or mind sets operating in their natural environment. This is noteworthy, especially when participants have a distinct disorder worthy of being studied to further the cause of research and development. Depending on the purpose of the investigation, the case study may present the individual’s history, symptoms, characteristic behaviors, reactions to......

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#### Case Study

...Tanglewood Case Study 2 Ratings: (0)|Views: 6|Likes: 0 Published by Megan Purdy Tanglewood Case Study 2 See more Tanglewood Case Study 2 Page 1 Tanglewood Case Study 2Megan PurdyHRM 594Keller Graduate School of Managementr! CardenMay 2"# 2$%4 Tanglewood Case Study 2 Page 2 Recru&tment Gu&dePos&t&on' Store Associate Re(orts To' Shift Leader and Department Manager )ual&f&cat&ons' Prefer to have some ac!ground in customer service or retail" no specific list of minimal educational ac!ground re#uired Rele*ant +a,or Mar-et' Pacific $orthwest% ®on and 'ashington T&mel&ne' This is a continuous recruiting effort with no set timeline% however the ideal process from initial contact with the applicant to the final hiring decision would ideally e within a month(s time) .ct&*&t&es to underta-e to source well /ual&f&ed cand&dates' *se of media" such as regional newspaper advertisements" online +o postings on oth pulic wesites as well as the company wesite" !ios!s in the stores" +o services groups and staffing agencies" Staff Mem,ers 0n*ol*ed' ,- -ecruiting Manager" Assistant Store Manager" Department Manager 1udget' .etween /1000 and /000 Tanglewood Case Study 2 Page n loo!ing to the est targets or applicants for the position of store associate" it would e ideal to recruit individuals with some prior ac!ground" !nowledge or e3perience in the customer service or retail fields) &ne of the ig complaints from our......

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...Case Study Complete Case History The patient in this case study reports being ‘sick with flu’ for 8 days. She has been vomiting, and cannot keep any liquids or food down. She also reports that she has been using antacids to help calm the nausea. After fainting at home, she was taken to the local hospital, severely dehydrated. Upon looking at her arterial blood gas result, it would appear that this patient would be suffering from metabolic alkalosis. This patient’s pH is greater than 7.45 (normal: 7.35-7.45) and her bicarbonate (HCO3) is greater than 26 (normal 22-26). Blood gases indicate that case study patient is suffering from hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis. Focused Assessment The case study patient reports being “sick with flu” for eight days. She reports vomiting several times a day and taking more the recommended dose of antacids. She reports that she fainted today at home and came to the hospital. The case study patient reports that this all started approximately eight days ago. The case study patient also reported taking excess amounts of antacids. Ingesting large amounts of this medication can cause metabolic alkalosis. When antacids are taken in large doses, the ions are unable to bind, and therefor the bicarbonate is reabsorbed and causes alkalosis (Lehne, 2013). Renal and Respiratory systems response Hypochloremic Metabolic alkalosis occurs when there is an acid loss due to prolonged vomiting which causes a decrease in the extracellular...

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#### Case Study

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Setting service levels to meet inventory demand is a manager's job. ... CHAPTER 12 INVENTORY MANAGEMENT. 185 ..... www.prenhall.com/heizer. 12.39.

12

C H A P T E R

Inventory Management

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1. The four types of inventory are: Raw

2. eliminating annual inventory adjustments 3. providing trained personnel to audit the accuracy of inventory 4. allowing the cause of errors to be identified and remedial action to be taken 5. maintaining accurate inventory records

material—those items that are to be converted into product Work-in-process (WIP)—those items that are in the process of being converted Finished goods—those completed items for which title has not been transferred MRO—(maintenance, repair, and operating supplies)— those items that are necessary to keep the transformation process going

9. A decrease in setup time decreases the cost per order, encourages more and smaller orders, and thus decreases the EOQ.

2. The advent of low-cost computing should not be seen as obviating the need for the ABC inventory classification scheme. Although the cost of computing has decreased considerably, the cost of data acquisition has not decreased in a similar fashion. Business organizations still have many items for which the cost of data acquisition for a “perpetual” inventory system is still considerably higher than the cost of the item.

11. Service level refers to the fraction of customers to whom the product or service is delivered when and as promised.

3. The purpose of the ABC system is to identify those items that require more attention due to cost or volume. 4. Types of costs—holding cost: cost of capital invested and space required; shortage cost: the cost of lost sales or customers who never return; the cost of lost good will; order cost: the costs associated with ordering, transporting, and receiving the items; unit cost: the actual cost of the item. 5. Assumptions of EOQ model: demand is known and constant over time; lead time is known and constant; receipt of inventory is instantaneous; quantity discounts are not possible; the only variable costs are the costs of placing an order or setting up production and the cost of holding or storing inventory over time and if orders are placed at the right time, stockouts or shortages can be completely avoided.

10. Discount points below the EOQ have higher inventory costs, and the prices are no lower than at the EOQ. Points above the EOQ have higher inventory costs than the corresponding price break point or EOQ at prices that are no lower than either of the price beaks or the EOQ. (It depends on whether or not there exists a discount point above the EOQ.)

12. If the same costs hold, more will be ordered using an economic production quantity, because the average inventory is less than the corresponding EOQ system. 13. In a fixed-quantity inventory system, when the quantity on hand reaches the reorder point, an order is placed for the specified quantity. In a fixed-period inventory system, an order is placed at the end of the period. The quantity ordered is that needed to bring on-hand inventory up to a specified level. 14. The EOQ model gives quite good results under inexact inputs; a 10% error in actual demand alters the EOQ by less than 5%. 15. Safety stock is inventory beyond average demand during lead time, held to control the level of shortages when demand and/or lead time are not constant; inventory carried to assure that the desired service level is reached. 16. The reorder point is a function of: demand per unit of time, lead time, customer service level, and standard deviation of demand.

6. The EOQ increases as demand increases or as the setup cost increases; it decreases as the holding cost increases. The changes in the EOQ are proportional to the square root of the changes in the parameters.

17. Most retail stores have a computerized cash register (pointof-sale) system. At the time of purchase, the computer system simultaneously rings up the bill and reduces the inventory level in its records for the products sold.

7. Price times quantity is not variable in the EOQ model, but is in the discount model. When quality discounts are available, the unit purchase price of the item depends on the order quantity.

18. Advantage of a fixed period system: there is no physical count of inventory when items are withdrawn. Disadvantage: there is a possibility of stockout during the time between orders.

8. Advantages of cycle counting:

ETHICAL DILEMMA

1. eliminating the shutdown and interruption of production necessary for annual physical inventories

184

Setting service levels to meet inventory demand is a manager’s job. Setting an 85% service level for whole blood is an important

CHAPTER 12

judgment call on the part of the hospital administrator. Another major disaster means a certain shortage, yet any higher level may be hard to cost justify. Many hospitals do develop joint or regional groups to share supplies. The basic issue is how to put a price tag on lifesaving medicines. This is not an easy question to answer, but it makes for good discussion.

END-OF-CHAPTER PROBLEMS 12.1

ACTIVE MODEL EXERCISES ACTIVE MODEL 12.1: Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) Model

3. From the graph, what can you conclude about the relationship between the lowest total cost and the costs of ordering and carrying inventory? The lowest total cost occurs where the ordering and inventory costs are the same. 4. How much does the total cost increase if the store manager orders 50 MORE hypodermics than the EOQ? 50 LESS hypodermics? Ordering more increases costs by $2.50 or 2.5%. Ordering LESS increases costs by $4.17 or 4.17% 5. What happens to the EOQ and total cost when demand is doubled? When carrying cost is doubled? The EOQ rises by 82 units (41%) and the total cost rises by $41 (41%) in EITHER case. 6. Scroll through lower setup cost values and describe the changes to the graph. What happens to the EOQ? The curves seem to drop and move to the left. The EOQ decreases. 7. Comment on the sensitivity of the EOQ model to errors in demand or cost estimates. The total cost is not very sensitive to mistakes in forecasting demand or placing orders.

ACTIVE MODEL 12.2: Production Order Quantity Model 1. What is the optimal production run size for hubcaps? 283 2. How does this compare to the corresponding EOQ model? The run size is larger than the corresponding EOQ. 3. What is the minimal cost? $70.71 4. How does this compare to the corresponding EOQ model? The total cost is less than the cost for the equivalent EOQ model.

Code

Total Cost Unit Cost u Demand

XX1 B66 3CP0 33CP R2D2 RMS

$ 7,008 $ 5,994 $ 1,003.52 $ 82,292.16 $ 2,220 $ 1,998.88

Total cost $100,516.56 70% of total cost $70,347.92

1. What is the EOQ and what is the lowest total cost? EOQ 200 units with a cost of $100 2. What is the annual cost of CARRYING inventory at the EOQ and the annual cost of ORDERING inventory at the EOQ of 200 units. $50 for carrying and also $50 for ordering

185

INVENTORY MANAGEMENT

The item that needs strict control is 33CP so it is an “A” item. Items that should not be strictly controlled are XX1, B66, 3CP0, R2D2, and RMS. The “B” items will be XX1 and B66. With so few items, an exact breakdown into the general A, B, C categories is flexible. 12.2 You decide that the top 20% of the 10 items, based on a criterion of demand times cost per unit, should be A items. (In this example, the top 20% constitutes only 58% of the total inventory value, but in larger samples the value would probably approach 70% to 80%.) You therefore rate items F3 and G2 as A items. The next 30% of the items are A2, C7, and D1; they represent 23% of the value and are categorized as B items. The remaining 50% of the items (items B8, E9, H2, I5, and J8) represent 19% of the value and become C items.

Item A2 B8 C7 D1 E9 F3 G2 H2 I5 J8

Annual Demand

Cost ($)

Demand u Cost

Classification

3,000 4,000 1,500 6,000 1,000 500 300 600 1,750 2,500

50 12 45 10 20 500 1,500 20 10 5

150,000 48,000 67,500 60,000 20,000 250,000 450,000 12,000 17,500 12,500

B C B B C A A C C C

186

CHAPTER 12

INVENTORY MANAGEMENT

12.3 First we rank the items from top to bottom on the basis of their dollar usage. Then they are partitioned off into classes.

Q

Item

Usage ($)

13 15 7 3

70,800 57,900 44,000 33,400

A: These four items (20% of 20) have a combined dollar usage of $206,100. This is 71% of the total.

19 20 12 1 4 14

19,000 15,500 10,400 9,200 8,100 6,800

B: These six items (30% of 20) have a combined dollar usage of $69,000. This is 24% of the total.

18 16 5 8 17 10 6 2 11 9

4,800 3,900 1,100 900 700 700 600 400 300 100

C: These ten items (50% of 20) have a combined dollar usage of $13,500. This is 5% of the total.

Class

700 2,450 3,850

12.6

700 y 20 2450 y 60 3850 y 120

35 40.83 32

35 A items per day 41 B items per day 32 C items per day 108 items

Q=

2 u 240 u S ; or, 60 .4 u 10

60

120 S , so solving for S results in S = $30.

480 S , or, 4

12.8 (a) Economic Order Quantity (Holding cost

where: D cost

2 u 400 u 40 5

annual demand, S

$5 per year):

80 units

setup or order cost, H

holding

$75

2 DS 2 u 15,000 u 75 300 units H 25 (b) Annual holding costs (Q/2) u H (300/2) u 25 $3,750

(a) EOQ

(d) ROP = d u L

(D/Q) u S

(15,000/300)

u 75 $3,750 § 15,000 units · ¨ ¸ u 8 days © 300 days ¹

400 units

demand during lead time 100 units/day u 21 days 2,100 units

12.11 D 10,000 Number of business days 300 Lead time 5 days ROP [Demand/Day](Lead time) 166.67 # 167 units.

[10,000/300](5)

12.12 (a) Economic Order Quantity:

Q

2 DS H

2 u 4,000 u 25 0.10 u 90

where: D annual demand, S H holding cost

149.1 or 149 valves setup or order cost,

(b) Average inventory

74.5 valves Demand 4,000 (c) Number of orders per year EOQ 149 26.8 or 27 orders (d) Assuming 250 business days per year, the optimal number of business days between orders is given by: 250 27

9

1 days 4

Order cost holding cost

DS QH 4,000 u 25 149 u 0.1 u 90 Q 2 149 2 671.14 670.50 $1,341.64 Note: Order and carrying costs are not equal due to rounding of the EOQ to a whole number.

(f) Reorder point

That is, if S were $30, then the EOQ would be 60. If the true ordering cost turns out to be much greater than $30, then the firm’s order policy is ordering too little at a time.

73 units

setup or order cost, H

$25/unit/year, S

(e) Total annual inventory cost

60

2 DS H

15,000, H

600 units

12.7 This problem reverses the unknown of a standard EOQ problem.

Q

12.9 D

Optimal number of days

2(8,000)45 2

EOQ

where: D annual demand, S holding cost

12.10 Reorder point

2(19,500)(25) 493.71 494 units 4 (b) Annual holdings costs [Q/2]H [494/2](4) $988 (c) Annual ordering costs [D/Q]S [19500/494](25) $987

12.5 (a) EOQ

2 u 400 u 40 6

2 DS H

(c) Annual ordering costs

The dollar usage percentages do not exactly match the predictions of ABC analysis. For example, Class A items only account for 71% of the total, rather than 80%. Nonetheless, the important finding is that ABC analysis did find the “significant few.” For the items sampled, particularly close control is needed for items 3, 7, 13, and 15. 12.4 7,000 u 0.10 7,000 u 0.35 7,000 u 0.55

(b) Economic Order Quantity (Holding cost $6 per year):

demand during lead time 16 units/day u 5 days 80 valves

2 DS 2(2500)18.75 H 1.50 250 brackets per order Q 250 (b) Average inventory 125 units 2 2 Q H 125(1.50) $187.50 Annual holding cost 2

12.13 (a) Q

CHAPTER 12

(c) Number of orders Annual order cost

(d) TC

Q D H S 2 Q

D 2500 10 orders /year Q 250 D S 10(18.75) $187.50 Q 187.50 187.50

(e) Time between orders

$375/ year

working days (D/Q) 250 25 days 10

(f) ROP dL 10(2) 20 units (where 10 daily demand) 2500 d 10 250 12.14 (a) Total cost

order cost + holding cost

DS QH 2 Q

1,200 u 25 25 u 24 For Q 25: $1,500 25 2 1,200 u 25 40 u 24 For Q 40: $1,230 40 2 1,200 u 25 50 u 24 For Q 50: $1,200 50 2 1,200 u 25 60 u 24 For Q 60: $1,220 60 2 1,200 u 25 100 u 24 For Q 100: $1,500 100 2 As expected, small variations in order quantity will not have a significant effect on total costs. 2 DS H

2 u 1,200 u 25 24

50 units

where: D annual demand, S H holding cost

S

(150)2 (1) 2(250) 22,500 = $45 500 12.16 Production Order Quantity, noninstantaneous delivery: =

Q

2 DS

2 u 10,000 u 200

§ · H ¨1 d ¸ p¹ ©

50 · § 1.00 ¨ 1 200 ¸¹ ©

EOQ

2 DS H

2(250)20 1

Q/2

100/2

holding

12.17 Production order quantity, noninstantaneous delivery.

(a) D

12,000/yr.

H

$.10/light-yr.

S

$50/setup

P

$1.00/light

p

100/day

d

12,000/yr. 300 days/yr.

Q

2 DS

40 / day 2(12,000)50

40 · § § d · .10 ¨ 1 H ¨1 ¸ 100 ¸¹ p¹ © © 4,472 lights per run

(b) Average holding cost /year 4,472 ª § 40 · º «1 ¨ ¸ » (.10) 2 ¬ © 100 ¹ ¼

(c) Average setup cost / year

100 units

Q ª § d ·º «1 ¨ ¸ » H 2 ¬« © p ¹ ¼» $26,832 200

$134.16

§D· § 12,000 · ¨ ¸S ¨ ¸ 50 © 4,472 ¹ ©Q¹ $134.16

(d) Total cost (including cost of goods)

(b) Number of orders per year D/Q 250/100 2.5 orders per year. Note that this would mean in one year the company places 3 orders and in the next it would only need 2 orders since some inventory would be carried over from the previous year. It averages 2.5 orders per year. (c) Average inventory

2309.4 or 2,309 units

where: D annual demand, S setup or order cost, H cost, d daily demand rate, p daily production rate

setup or order cost,

12.15 (a) The EOQ assumptions are met, so the optimal order quantity is

2 DS H 2 H Q 2D

Q

(b) Economic Order Quantity:

Q

187

INVENTORY MANAGEMENT

50 units

(d) Given an annual demand of 250, a carrying cost of $1, and an order quantity of 150, Patterson Electronics must determine what the ordering cost would have to be for the order policy of 150 units to be optimal. To find the answer to this problem, we must solve the traditional economic order quantity equation for the ordering cost. As you can see in the calculations that follow, an ordering cost of $45 is needed for the order quantity of 150 units to be optimal.

PD $134.16 $134.16 ($1 u 12,000) $134.16 $134.16 $12,268.32/year 12.18 (a) Production Order Quantity, noninstantaneous delivery: 2 DS

Q

H 1 dp

2 u 10,000 u 40 50 · § 0.60 ¨ 1 ¸ 500 © ¹

1217.2 or 1,217 units

where: D annual demand, S setup or order cost, H holding cost, d daily demand rate, p daily production rate (b) I max

§ d· Q ¨ 1 ¸ 1,095 p¹ ©

188

CHAPTER 12

(c)

D Q

10,000 1,217

(d) TC

INVENTORY MANAGEMENT

We start the analysis with no discount:

8.22

I max D H S Q 2

EOQ (no discount) = 328.50 328.80

$657.30

= 29.6 units

12.19 At the Economic Order Quantity, we have:

EOQ

(2 u 36,000 u 25) / 0.45

2,000 units.

The total costs at this quantity are: Holding cost Q/2 u H 1,000 u .45 $450 Ordering cost D/Q u S 36,000/2,000 u 25 $450 Purchase cost D u P 36,000 u 0.85 $30,600 Total cost $900 $30,600 $31,500 At the quantity discount, we have:

The quantity discount will save $480 on this item. The company should also consider some qualitative aspects of the decision, such as available space, the risk of obsolescence of disks, and the risk of deterioration of the storage medium over time, as 6,000 represents one sixth of the year’s needs. 12.20 Under present price of $50.00 per unit, Economic Order Quantity:

Q

2 DS H

Q

2 u 1,000 u 40 0.25 u 50

Total cost

80 units

setup or order cost, H

holding

order cost holding cost purchase cost DS QH PD 2 Q 1,000 u 40 80 u 0.25 u 50 (1,000 u 50) 80 2 500.00 500.00 50,000 $51,000

Under the quantity discount price reduction of 3%: Total cost

Total cost (no discount) = material cost + ordering cost + carrying cost 1,400(25) $400(1,400) 29.6 29.6($400)(0.2) 2 $560,000 $1,183 $1,183 $562,366 The next step is to compute the total cost for the discount:

Holding cost Q/2 u H 3,000 u .45 $1,350 Ordering cost D/Q u S 36,000/6,000 u 25 $150 Purchase cost D u P 36,000 u 0.82 $29,520 Total cost $1,500 $29,520 $31,020

where: D annual demand, S cost, P price/unit

2(1,400)(25) 0.2(400)

order cost holding cost purchase cost DS QH PD 2 Q 1,000 u 40 200 u 0.25 u 50 u 0.97 200 2 1,000 u 50 u 0.97 200.00 1212.50 48,500 $49,912.50

Therefore, the pumps should be ordered in batches of 200 units and the quantity discount taken. 12.21 The solution to any quantity discount model involves determining the total cost of each alternative after quantities have been computed and adjusted for the original problem and every discount.

EOQ (with discount) =

2(1,400)(25) 0.2($380)

= 30.3 units EOQ (adjusted) = 300 units Because this last economic order quantity is below the discounted price, we must adjust the order quantity to 300 units. The next step is to compute total cost. Total cost (with discount) = material cost + ordering cost + carrying cost 1,400(25) = $380(1,400) + 300 300($380)(0.2) 2 $532,000 $117 $11,400 $543,517 The optimal strategy is to order 300 units at a total cost of $543,517. 12.22 Economic Order Quantity:

Q where: D annual demand, S cost, price/unit

2 DS H setup or order cost, H

holding

x Economic Order Quantity, standard price:

Q

2 u 45 u 10 0.05 u 20

Total cost

30 units

order cost holding cost purchase cost DS QH PD 2 Q 45 u 10 30 u 0.05 u 20 (45 u 20) 30 2 15 15 900 $930

x Quantity Discount, 75 units or more. Economic Order Quantity, discount over 75 units:

Q

2 u 45 u 10 0.05 u 18.50

31.19 or 31 units

CHAPTER 12

Because EOQ 31 and a discount is given only on orders of 75 or more, we must calculate the total cost using a 75unit order quantity: Total cost order cost holding cost purchase cost DS QH PD 2 Q 45 u 10 75 u 0.05 u 18.50 (45 u 18.50) 75 2 6 34.69 832.50 $873.19

TC1,000

PD HQ/2 SD/Q = $17 u 20,000 (.2 u $17 u 1,000)/2 ($40 u 20,000) /1,000 = $340,000 + $1,700 + $800 = $342,500 per year

Rocky Mountain should order 1,000 tires each time. 12.24 D

700 u 12, H

2 u 45 u 10 0.05 u 15.75

33.81 or 34 units

12.23 D 20,000/yr. I 20 percent of purchase price per year in holding costs, where H IP S $40/order P $20/tire if fewer than 500 are ordered; $18/tire if between 500 and 999 are ordered; and $17/tire if 1,000 or more are ordered

2 DS/H = (2 u 20,000 u 40) /(.2 u 20) = 632.5 (not valid)

Q18

2 DS/H = (2 u 20,000 u 40) /(.2 u 18) = 666.7 (valid)

Q17

$16.00 $15.50 $15.00

Baker 1–399 400–799 800

$16.10 $15.60 $15.10

order cost holding cost purchase cost

DS QH PD 2 Q 45 u 10 100 u 0.05 u 15.75 (45 u 15.75) 100 2 4.5 39.38 708.75 $752.63 Based purely upon cost, the decision should be made to order in quantities of 100, for a total cost of $752.63. It should be noted, however, that an order quantity of 100 implies that an order will be placed roughly every two years. When orders are placed that infrequently, obsolescence may become a problem.

Q20

50

1–499 500–999 1000

EOQ 34 and a discount is given only on orders of 100 or more, thus we must calculate the total cost using a 100unit order quantity. Calculate total cost using 100 as order quantity: Total cost

5, S

Allen

x Quantity Discount, 100 units or more; Economic Order Quantity, discount over 100 units:

Q

189

INVENTORY MANAGEMENT

2 DS/H = (2 u 20,000 u 40) /(.2 u 17) = 686 (not valid)

We compare the cost of ordering 667 with the cost of ordering 1,000. TC667 PD HQ/2 SD/Q = $18 u 20,000 (.2 u $18 u 667)/2 ($40 u 20,000)/667 = $360,000 + $1,200 + $1,200 = $362,400 per year

(a)

2 DS H

Q

2(8,400)50 5

409.88 o 410

(b,c) Vendor: Allen at 410, TC

410 8,400 (5) (50) 8,400(16) 2 410

at 500, TC

500 8,400 (5) (50) 8,400(15.5) 2 500

at 1,000, TC

$136,449.36 $132,290

1,000 8,400 (5) (50) 8,400(15) 2 1,000 $128,920 BEST

Vendor: Baker at 410, TC at 800, TC

410 (5) 2 800 (5) 2

8,400 (50) 8,400(15.60) 410 8,400 (50) 8,400(15.10) 800

$133,089.39 $129,365

190

CHAPTER 12

12.25 S

10, H

3.33, D

INVENTORY MANAGEMENT

2,400 Costs

Qty

Price

Holding

Ordering

Purchase

120 150 300 500

$33.55 $32.35 $31.15 $30.75

$199.80 $249.75 $499.50 $832.50

$200.00 $160.00 $80.00 $48.00

$80,520.00 $77,640.00 $74,760.00 $73,800.00

$80,919.80 $78,049.75 $75,339.50 $74,680.50

Vendor A

120 150 300 500

$34.00 $32.80 $31.60 $30.50

$199.80 $249.75 $499.50 $832.50

$200.00 $160.00 $80.00 $48.00

$81,600.00 $78,720.00 $75,840.00 $73,200.00

$81,999.80 $79,129.75 $76,419.50 $74,080.50

Vendor B

120 200 400

$33.75 $32.50 $31.10

$199.80 $333.00 $666.00

$200.00 $120.00 $60.00

$81,000.00 $78,000.00 $74,640.00

$81,399.80 $78,453.00 $75,366.00

Vendor C

120 200 400

$34.25 $33.00 $31.00

$199.80 $333.00 $666.00

$200.00 $120.00 $60.00

$82,200.00 $79,200.00 $74,400.00

$82,599.80 $79,653.00 $75,126.00

Vendor D

EOQ

Total

BEST

120 with slight rounding

12.26 Calculation for EOQ: S

(a)

$50, H

50%, D

Price

EOQ

$17.00 $16.75 $16.50 $17.10 $16.85 $16.60

336.0672 338.5659 341.1211 335.0831 337.5598 340.0921

9,600 Vendor

feasible not feasible not feasible feasible not feasible not feasible

A

B

(b), (c)

Costs Qty

Price

Holding

Ordering

Purchase

336 500 1000

$17.00 $16.75 $16.50

$1,428.00 $2,093.75 $4,125.00

$1,428.57 $960.00 $480.00

$163,200.00 $160,800.00 $158,400.00

$166,056.57 $163,853.75 $163,005.00

Vendor A

335 400 800

$17.10 $16.85 $16.60

$1,432.13 $1,685.00 $3,320.00

$1,432.84 $1,200.00 $600.00

$164,160.00 $161,760.00 $159,360.00

$167,024.97 $164,645.00 $163,280.00

Vendor B

1200

$16.25

$4,875.00

$400.00

$156,000.00

$161,275.00

BEST

(d) Other considerations include the perishability of the chemical and whether or not there is adequate space in the controlled environment to handle 1,200 pounds of the chemical at one time. 12.27 (a) P

60; V

7

Safety stock for 90% service level 7 u 1.28 8.96 | 9 (b) ROP 12.28 (a) Z

60 9

VZ(at 0.90)

69 BX-5 bandages.

1.88

(b) Safety stock (c) ROP

ZV

50 9.4

1.88(5) 59.4 drives

9.4 drives

Total

CHAPTER 12

191

INVENTORY MANAGEMENT

12.29 Incremental Costs Safety Stock

Carrying Cost

0 100 200

Stockout Cost

0 1,500 3,000

100 u 15 200 u 15

Total Cost

70 u (100 u 0.2 200 u 0.2) (100 u 0.2) u 70

4,200 1,400 0

4,200 2,900 3,000

The safety stock that minimizes total incremental cost is 100 units. The reorder point then becomes 200 units 100 units or, 300 units. 12.30 Demand during Reorder Period

Probability

0 50 100 150 200

0.1 0.2 0.4 0.2 0.1 1.0 Incremental Costs

Safety Stock

Carrying Cost

Stockout Cost

Total Cost

0 50 100

0 50 u 10 500 100 u 10 1,000

50 u (50 u 0.2 100 u 0.1) 1,000 50 u (0.1 u 50) 250 0

1000 750 1000

The safety stock that minimizes total incremental cost is 50 sets. The reorder point then becomes 100 sets 50 sets or, 150 sets. 12.31 Safety Stock 0 10 20 30

Additional Carrying Cost

Stockout Cost

Total Cost

0 10 u 5 50 20 u 5 100 30 u 5 150

10 u 0.2 u 50 u 7 20 u 0.2 u 50 u 7 30 u 0.1 u 50 u 7 3,150 50 u 7(10 u 0.2 20 u 0.1) 1,400 10 u 0.1 u 50 u 7 350 0

3,150 1,450 450 150

The BB-1 set should therefore have a safety stock of 30 units; ROP 12.32 Only demand is variable in this problem so Equation (12-15) applies (a) ROP (average daily demand u lead time in days) ZVdLT (1,000 u 2) (2.05)(V d )

lead time

90 units. (6 u 625) (40,000 u 4) 163,750 # 405

(b) Safety stock

1,718 cigars

12.35 Fixed-period model. Q

2,290 towels

Target – onhand – orders not received 40 – 5 – 18 17 poles.

290 towels

12.33 Only lead time is variable in this problem, so Equation (12-16) is used. = 1.88 for 97% service level ROP (daily demand u average lead time in days) = u daily demand u VLT ROP (12,500 u 4) (1.88)(12,500)(1) 50,000 23,500 73,500 pages 12.34 Both lead time and demand are variables, so Equation (12-17) applies, in weeks. = 1.28 for 90% service. ROP (200 u 6) 1.28 VdLT where VdLT

1,200 (1.28)(405) # 1,200 518

So ROP

2,000 2.05(100) 2 2,000 290

3,750 160,000

(6 u 252 ) (2002 u 22 )

12.36 Holding Cost $2,000 600 750 280 12,800 800 300 $17,530

Ordering Cost 1,500 500 800 30,000 500 1,000 $34,300

Note: Items of New Product Development, advertising, and research are not part of holding or ordering cost.

192

CHAPTER 12

INVENTORY MANAGEMENT

$34,300 200 $17,530 10,000

Cost per order Holding cost per unit

$171.50

INTERNET HOMEWORK PROBLEMS

$1.753

Problems 12.39–12.51 are found on our companion web site at www.prenhall.com/heizer. 12.39

(2)(1000)(171.5) 1.753

Therefore, EOQ

12.37 Annual demand, D 8,000 Daily production rate, p 200 Set-up cost, S 120 Holding cost, H 50 Production quantity, Q 400

(a) daily demand, d

D/250

8,000/250

(b) number of days in production run

400/200

(c) number of production runs per year D/Q annual set-up cost 20($120) $2,400 (d) maximum inventory level

maximum/2

2 DS

2(8000)120

§ d· H ¨1 ¸ p¹ ©

32 · § 50 ¨ 1 200 ¸¹ ©

$10,800 – $8,980

336

168

(168)50 20(120) $8,400 $2,400 $10,800 213.81

4,490 4,490

$8,980

15,000 lbs/year

400 lbs of beans

4 days with V

15 Stockout risk

1%

= 2.33 ROP Lead time demand SS (= )(VdLT) and lead time demand

where SS

V dLT ROP (e) SS

LT (15)

369.99

4 (15)

(d)(LT)

30

where ROP

(d)(LT) SS

69.99 from part (d)

(f) Annual holding cost

100 75 50 200 150

300 100 50 100 75

Demand u Cost Classification 30,000 7,500 2,500 20,000 11,250

A B C A B

12.40

E102 D23 D27 R02 R19 S107 S123 U11 U23 V75

Annual Demand u Demand Cost ($) Cost Classification 800 1,200 700 1,000 200 500 1,200 800 1,500 1,500

12.41

EOQ

12.42

300

$209.37

(g) 2% stock out level Z = 2.054 SS (Z)(VdLT) 61.61 The lower we make our target service level, the less S.S. we need.

4.00 8.00 3.00 2.00 8.00 6.00 1.00 7.00 1.00 4.00

3,200 9,600 2,100 2,000 1,600 3,000 1,200 5,600 1,500 6,000

2(1000)62.50 0.50

C A C C C C C B C B

27%

16% 33% 17%

500 units

2(8,000)45 90,000 H 720,000 $8 90,000

H

Q (b) Total annual holding cost = H = (200)($3) = $600 2 D (c) Total annual order cost = S = (37.5)(16) = $600 Q

(d) LT

A B C D E

$1,820

12.38 (a) d 75 lbs/day 200 days per year D H $3/lb./year S $16/order Q

Cost ($)

Item

336/2

total holding cost total set-up cost Savings

20

Q(1 – d/p)

(e) total holding cost total set-up cost

(f) Q

2

8,000/400

400(1 – 32/200) average inventory

Annual Demand

Obviously, with so few items, the breakdowns into A, B, and C cannot follow the guidelines exactly.

32

Q/p

SKU

442.34 units.

720,000 H

12.43 (a) Economic Order Quantity:

Q

2 DS H

2 u 1,500 u 150 45

where: D annual demand, S H holding cost QH 100 u 45 (b) Holding cost 2 2 DS 1500 u 150 (c) Order cost Q 100

100 units setup or order cost, $2,250.00 $2,250.00

(d) Reorder point: Reorder point = demand during lead time 1,500 units /day u 6 days 300 30 units 12.44 Reorder point demand during lead time 500 units/day u 14 days 7,000 units

CHAPTER 12

2 u 5,000 u 30 50

2 DS H

77.46 or 78 units

where: D annual demand, S setup or order cost, H holding cost 78 (b) Average inventory 39 units 2 Demand 5,000 (c) Number of orders per year EOQ 78 64.1 or 64 orders (d) Assuming 250 business days per year, the optimal number of business days between orders is given by: 250 Optimal number of days 3.91 days 64 (e) Total cost

Q

2 DS § H ¨ 1 dp ·¸ © ¹

Q

where: D annual demand, D cost, p price/unit

Q

2 u 2,000 u 10 1

Total cost

Total cost

setup or order cost, H

holding

200 units

order cost holding cost purchase cost DS QH PD 2 Q 2,000 u 10 200 u 1 (2,000 u 1) 200 2 100 100 2,000 $2,200

order cost holding cost

For Q 50: 600 u 60 50 u 20 50 2

720 500

DS QH 2 Q

Note: No, EOQ with 200 units and a total cost of $2,200 is better. 12.49 Under present price of $7.00 per unit, Economic Order Quantity:

$1,220

Q

2 DS H

Q

2 u 6,000 u 20 0.15 u 7

(b) Economic Order Quantity: 2 u 600 u 60 20

60 units

where: D annual demand, S H holding cost

setup or order cost,

600 u 60 60 u 20 60 2

where: D annual demand, S cost, p price/unit Total cost

60: 600 600

$1,200

(c) Reorder point: Reorder point demand during lead time 600 units u 10 days 24 units 250 days

order cost holding cost purchase cost DS QH PD Q 2 2,000 u 10 2,000 u 1 2,000 2 (2,000 u 0.75) 10 1,000 1,500 $2,510

This is not to say that we reorder when there are 200 units on hand (as there never are). The ROP indicates that orders are placed several cycles prior to their actual demand.

For Q

2 DS H

(b) Quantity Discount:

Reorder point = demand during lead time 5,000 units u 10 days 200 units 250 days

2 DS H

holding

(a) Economic Order Quantity, standard price:

Note: Order and carrying costs are not equal due to rounding of the EOQ to a whole number. If an EOQ of 77.46 is used, the order and carrying costs calculate to $1,936.49 for a total cost of $3,872.98.

Q

1,651.4 or 1,651 units

12.48 Economic Order Quantity:

order cost holding cost

(f) Reorder point:

2 u 8,000 u 100 0.80 1 40 150

where: D annual demand, S setup or order cost, H cost, d daily demand rate, p daily production rate

DS QH 5,000 u 30 78 u 50 Q 2 78 2 1,923.02 1,950 $3,873.08

12.46 (a) Total cost

193

12.47 Economic Order Quantity, noninstantaneous delivery:

12.45 (a) Economic Order Quantity: Q

INVENTORY MANAGEMENT

478.1 or 478 units setup or order cost, H

order cost holding cost purchase cost DS QH PD 2 Q 6,000 u 20 478 u 0.15 u 7 (7 u 6,000) 478 2 251.05 250.95 42,000 $42,502.00

holding

194

CHAPTER 12

INVENTORY MANAGEMENT

Therefore, order 51 units. Note: Order and carrying costs are not equal due to rounding of the EOQ to a whole number. Important Note: Students will likely complete all three sets of calculations, including the calculations of total costs. They should be prompted to realize that calculations of total cost under (a) and (b) are actually inappropriate because the original assumptions as to lot size would not be satisfied by the calculated EOQs.

12.50 Economic Order Quantity:

Q where: D annual demand, S cost, P price/unit

2DS H setup or order cost, H

(a) Order quantity 9 sheets or less, unit price Q

2 u 100 u 45 0.20 u 18

Total cost

holding $18.00

CASE STUDIES

order cost holding cost purchase cost

regarding actual price)

(b) Order quantity 10 to 50 sheets: unit price 2 u 100 u 45 0.20 u 17.50

Total cost

50.7 units or 51 units

order cost holding cost purchase cost DS QH PD 2 Q 100 u 45 51 u 0.20 u 17.50 51 2 (17.50 u 100) 88.23 89.25 1,750.00 1,927.48

(c) Order quantity more than 50 sheets: unit price $17.25 2 u 100 u 45 0.20 u 17.25

51.1 units or 51 units

1

ZHOU BICYCLE COMPANY

1. Inventory plan for Zhou Bicycle Company. The forecasted demand is summarized in the following table. Jan Feb Mar April May June

8 15 31 59 97 60

July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Total

$17.50

Note: Order and carrying costs are not equal due to rounding the EOQ to a whole number. See note at end of problem regarding price.

Q

12.51 Z 1.28 for 90% service level Safety stock (1.28)(15) 19.2 or 19 Reorder point 36 19 55 TVs

50 units

DS QH PD Q 2 100 u 45 50 u 0.20 u 18 (18 u 100) 50 2 90 90 1,800 $1,980 (see note at end of problem

Q

order cost holding cost purchase cost DS QH PD 2 Q 100 u 45 51 u 0.20 u 17.25 51 2 (17.25 u 100) 88.24 87.98 1,725.00 $1,901.22

Total cost

Note: Order and carrying costs are not equal due to rounding of the EOQ to a whole number. Under the quantity discount price of $6.65 per unit: Total cost order cost holding cost purchase cost DS QH PD Q 2 6,000 u 20 3,000 u 0.15 u 6.65 (6,000 u 6.65) 3,000 2 40.00 1,496.25 39,900 $41,436.25 Therefore, the new policy, with a total cost of $41,436.25, is preferable.

39 24 16 15 28 47 439

Average demand per month 439/12 36.58 bicycles. The standard deviation of the monthly demand 25.67 bicycles. The inventory plan is based on the following costs and values. Order cost Cost per bicycle Holding cost Service level Lead time Total demand/year

$65/order $102.00 ($102.00) u (1%) u 12 per year per bicycle $12.24 per year per bicycle 95%, with corresponding Z value of 1.645 1 month (4 weeks) 439 units of bicycles

The solution below uses the simple EOQ model with reorder point and safety stock. It ignores the seasonal nature of the demand. The fluctuation in demand is dealt with by the safety stock based on the variation of demand over the planning horizon. Economic order quantity (Q*) is given by: Q

2 u (Total demand) u (Ordering cost) Holding cost

where the total demand and the holding cost are calculated on the same time unit (monthly, yearly, etc.). Thus, Q

2 u 439 u 65 | 68 units of bicycles 12.24

CHAPTER 12

2. The reorder point is calculated by the following relation: Reorder point (ROP) average demand during the lead time (P) z u (standard deviation of the demand during the lead time (V)) Therefore, (ROP)

36.58 1.645 (25.67) | 79 bicycles.

Safety stock (ss) is given by ss zV 1.645(25.67) | 42 bicycles. Inventory cost is calculated as follows:

Total annual inventory cost

Annual holding cost Annual ordering cost 1 = Q * (Holding cost) ss(Holding cost) 2 Total Demand + (Ordering cost) Q* $416.16 $514.08 $419.63 $1,349.87 (rounded to integer values)

This case can be made more interesting by asking the students to trace the inventory behavior with the above plan (assuming that the forecast figures are accurate and ignoring the forecast errors) and to see the amount of total stockout, if any. The students then can calculate the lost profit due to stockout and add it to the total cost. 3. A plot of the nature of the demand clearly shows that it is not a level demand over the planning horizon. An EOQ for the entire year, therefore, may not be appropriate. The students should try to segment the planning horizon in a way so that the demand is more evenly distributed and come up with an inventory plan for each of these segments (e.g., quarterly inventory planning). The challenge is then to manage the transition from one planning period to the next. Again, a plot of the inventory behavior may be of help to the students.

195

INVENTORY MANAGEMENT

Carrying cost

384.6 units/order u $6 / unit 1154 2 Total cost = $301,414

Next, develop an Economic Order Quantity, and determine the total costs: Q

2 DS H

2 u 5,000 u 20 6

182.5 or 183 units

where: D annual demand, S setup or order cost, H holding cost. 2. Determine the appropriate reorder point (in units). Reorder point demand during lead time 20 u 5

100

3. Compute the cost savings that the company will realize if it implements the optimal inventory procurement decision. Total cost order cost holding cost purchase cost DS QH PD 2 Q 5,000 u 20 183 u 6 5,000 u 60 183 2 546.45 549.00 300,000.00 $301,095.45

Note: Order and carrying costs are not equal due to rounding of the EOQ to a whole number. The cost savings under the EOQ ordering policy would then be: Cost under present policy: $301,414.00 Cost under EOQ policy: 301,095.45 $ 318.55 which is a very small savings. 4. The typical costs associated with procurement of materials include costs of preparing requisitions, writing purchase orders, receiving merchandise, inspecting goods, storage, updating inventory records, and so forth. These costs are usually fixed, regardless of the size of the order. A large order may require more processing time (in inspection, for example), but the increase in procurement costs is typically minimal. As lot size increases, the number of orders decreases (assuming a constant requirement level). Consequently, procurement costs typically decrease with an increase in lot size.

VIDEO CASE STUDY INVENTORY CONTROL AT WHEELED COACH

2

STURDIVANT SOUND SYSTEMS

1. Compute the optimal order quantity. First, determine the cost under the present policy: Number of orders/year 52 weeks y 4 weeks 13 orders Average order size 5,000/13 384.6 or 385 units Total cost order cost holding cost purchase cost Purchase cost 5000 units u 60/unit 300,000 Order cost $20/order u 13 orders 260

The 7 minute video, filmed specifically for this text, is available from Prentice Hall and designed to supplement this case. A 2 minute edited version of the video also appears on the student CD in the text. 1. Wheeled Coach implements ABC analysis by identifying the annual use of those high dollar items and classifying them as A. They represent some 15% of the total inventory items, but 70–80% of the total cost. B items are those items that are of medium value that represent 30% of the items and 15–25% of the value. The low dollar items are class C items, which represents 5% of the annual dollar volume, but about 55% of the total items. 2. The inventory control manager at Wheeled Coach would want to not only have ABC analysis but implement tight physical control of the stockroom. He would also implement a cycle counting system, and ensure that issues require engineering change notices

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for those items not initially included on the bill of material. To the extent feasible, stockrooms would be consolidated. 3. The inventory control manager would implement these changes through effective leadership, hiring and training of cycle counters, and effective training and education of all staff, from engineering through cycle counters, so that each understands the entire system and the importance of maintaining accurate inventory. We would also want to be assured that all concerned employees understand the importance of accurate inventory records, tight inventory control, and locked stockrooms. Management would have to exhibit the proper leadership and support of the entire system, including accurate bills of material, rapid issuing of ECN’s, training budgets, etc.

INTERNET CASE STUDIES* 1

MAYO MEDICAL CENTER

1. The benefits of bar codes in hospitals are much the same as in any inventory application. These benefits include ease (low cost) of collecting inventory data and accuracy of inventory records. Such systems in turn contribute to systems with low inventory investment, but that have materials when they are needed. 2. A natural extension with the hospital suggests accurate charges to patient bills, reduced pilferage, and improved care through reduction of shortages. 3. A natural extension in the supply chain suggests more accurate inventory, which means orders placed at the correct time for the correct quantity. Accurate inventory records also support blanket ordering and quantity discounts.

2

SOUTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY: F

Key Points: This case lets the student look at a simple inventory problem that can be discussed at several levels. By using a standard EOQ formula, the student gets a fast, easy solution that is close. However, the case lends itself to further discussion that can make the limitations of EOQ readily apparent. 1. Because this is a one-year demand, demand violates the EOQ assumption of constant demand. Therefore, the number of orders should not be prorated (as does the standard EOQ computation) nor are all orders at the EOQ optimum of 60,000. The total cost and total profit will not be accurate if the theoretical solution is used. Theoretical Solution: Maddux should order 60,000 per order from First Printing. The simple theoretical EOQ solution is 3 13 orders of 60,000 each for a setup cost of $1,000, and the total is $310,600. The instructor can accept this as less than precise, but adequate. The solution is close because the total EOQ line is so flat (robust) around the optimum. Alternatively, the instructor can expand the discussion to the real application. Excel OM software output (theoretical solution) is shown below.

Data Demand rate, D Setup cost, S Holding cost %, I Minimum quantity Unit Price, P

200,000 300 0.5 Range 1 10,000 1.62

Range 2 30,000 1.53

Range 3 60,000 1.44

Range 4 250,000 1.26

4. EDI and Internet connections reduce costs for both purchaser and supplier as well as reducing communication delay.

*These case studies appear www.prenhall.com/heizer.

Range 1

Results Range 2

Range 3

Range 4

Q* (Square root form) Order quantity Holding cost Setup cost Unit costs Total cost

12,171.61 12,171.61 $4,929.50 $4,929.50 $324,000.00 $333,859.01

12,524.48 30,000.00 $11,475.00 $2,000.00 $306,000.00 $319,475.00

12,909.94 60,000.00 $21,600.00 $1,000.00 $288,000.00 $310,600.00

13,801.31 250,000.00 $78,750.00 $240.00 $252,000.00 $330,990.00

on

site,

our

companion

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($1.44 u 200,000) $288,000 ($1.44 u 3 u 60,000) ($1.53 u 20,000) $259,200 $30,600 $289,600

Theoretical ordering cost Actual ordering cost

( 3 13 u $300) $1,000 but in fact 4 orders must be placed; 3 at 60,000 and 1 at 20,000. Four setups cost $1,200 (4 u $300)

Theoretical holding cost

50% of $1.44 u (60,000/2) $21,600

$0.765 u 40,000 $30,600 5 orders must be placed @ 40,000 inserts; 5 setups cost $1,500 @ $300 each. Holding cost 5% of $0.765 u (40,000/2) $1,530 (assume average inventory is 20,000).

Unit cost Ordering cost

Per game insert cost ($0.765 u 40,000) ($300) (5% of $0.765 u 40,000 2) $30,600 $300 $1,530 $32,430 Per season insert cost $32,430 u 5 games $162,150 3. Total cost for the season is: Programs $308,800 Inserts $198,750 Total cost for season $507,550 4. Maddux might do several things to improve his supply chain.

Actual holding cost last order is for only 20,000 units, so his average order (and maximum inventory) is only 50,000 (200,000/4 orders or [(3 u 60,000) 20,000]/4 50,000, so a case can be made that his holding cost is 50% of 1.44 u (50,000/2) $18,000. Total program cost

Ask

the potential vendors if there is an additional discount if he buys programs and inserts from the same vendor. Ask if he can have the same discount schedule if he places a blanket order for all 200,000, but ask for releases on a per game basis. He may also be able to save money if he can reduce his trips to Ft. Worth by combining pickups of programs and inserts. He might also prevail upon the vendors to hold the programs and inserts at the printing plant until just before the game, reducing his holding cost.

(Unit cost) (Ordering cost) (Holding cost) $289,600 $1,200 $18,000 $308,800

2. The insert ordering includes another set of issues. Although some students might use a standard Quantity Discount Model and suggest that the order quantity should be 60,000 units, purchased from First Printing, as shown in the Excel OM printout below, the real problem is somewhat different.

3

Minimum quantity Unit price, P

200,000 300 0.05 Range 1 10,000 0.81

Range 2 30,000 0.765

Range 3 60,000 0.72

PROFESSIONAL VIDEO MANAGEMENT

1. To determine the reorder points for the two suppliers, daily demand for the videotape systems must be determined. Each video system requires two videotape systems that are connected to it, thus the demand for the videotape units is equal to two times the number of complete systems. The demand for the complete video system appears to be relatively constant and stable. The monthly demand for the past few months can be averaged, and this value can be used for the

Data Demand rate, D Setup cost, S Holding cost %, I

Range 4 250,000 0.63 Results

Q* (Square root form) Order quantity Holding cost Setup cost Unit costs Total cost

Range 1

Range 2

Range 3

Range 4

54,433.1 54,433.1 $1,102.27 $1,102.27 $162,000.00 $164,204.54

56,011.2 56,011.2 $1,071.21 $1,071.21 $153,000.00 $155,142.43

57,735.0 60,000 $1,080.00 $1,000.00 $144,000.00 $146,080.00

61,721.3 250,000 $3,937.50 $300.00 $126,000.00 $130,237.50

Maddux needs 40,000 inserts for each game and must order them on a per game basis. Inserts for each game are unique, as statistics and lineup for each team changes as the season progresses. If 60,000 people are going to attend the game, then 40,000 inserts are required (2 of 3 people or 2/3 of 60,000). Therefore, the quantity discount issue, although it should be evaluated, takes second place to the necessity of ordering 40,000 inserts for each game.

197

Therefore, Maddux should order 40,000 inserts from First Printing for each game at a cost of $32,430 per game, and 5 u 32,430 (5 games) $162,150 per season.

Actual Solution. The demand is not constant. Maddux needs 200,000 programs this year. The programs will be different next year when he will also have a new forecasted demand, depending on how the team does this year. Maddux’s real solution will be more like this one: Maddux should order programs from First Printing. He places 3 orders for 60,000 and 1 for 20,000 at an actual total cost of $308,800. Theoretical unit cost Actual unit cost

INVENTORY MANAGEMENT

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average monthly demand. The average monthly sales is equal to (7,970 8,070 7,950 8,010)/4 8,000. Therefore, the average monthly demand of the videotape systems is 16,000 units, because two tape units are required for every complete system. Annual demand is 192,000 units (192,000 12 u 16,000). We will assume that there are 20 working days per month (5 working days per week). Making this assumption, we can determine the average daily sales to be equal to the average monthly sales divided by 20. In other words, the daily sales are equal to 800 units per day (800 16,000/20). To determine the reorder point for Toshiki, we must know the lead time. For Toshiki, it takes 3 months between the time an order is placed and when the order is actually received. In other words, the lead time is 3 months. Again, assuming 20 working days per month, the lead time for Toshiki is 60 days (60 20 u 3). In order to determine the reorder point, we multiply the demand, expressed as units per day, times the lead time in days. For Toshiki, the reorder point is equal to 48,000 units (48,000 800 u 60). The reorder point will be greater than the EOQ (see question 2 for EOQ calculations), thus the lead time will likely be more important for ordering more inventory. For Kony, the reorder point can be computed in the same manner. Assuming again that there are 5 working days per week, we can compute the lead time in days. For Kony, it takes 2 weeks between the time an order is placed and when it is received. Therefore, the lead time in days is equal to 10 days (10 2 u 5). With the lead time expressed in days, we can compute the reorder point for Kony. This is done by multiplying the lead time in days times the daily demand. Therefore, the reorder point for Kony is 8,000 (8,000 800 u 10). 2. To make a decision concerning which supplier to use, total inventory cost must be considered for both Toshiki and Kony. Both companies have quantity discounts. Because there are two suppliers, we had to make two separate quantity discount computer runs. The first run was for Toshiki. The second run was for Kony. Toshiki had the lowest total cost of $40,950,895. The EOQ for the minimum cost inventory policy was 20,001. Kony had a cost of $42,406,569. 3. Each alternative that Steve is considering would have a direct impact on the quantity discount model and the results. The first strategy is to sell the components separately. If this is done, the demand for videotape systems could change drastically. In addition to selling the videotape units along with the complete system, additional tape units could be demanded. An increase in demand could change the outcome of the quantity discount model. The second strategy would also have an impact on the results of the analysis. If other videotape systems can be used as well, there will be fewer videotape systems ordered when obtaining the complete system. At this time, exactly two videotape systems are sold with every complete system. Implementing the second strategy would cause this ratio to drop below two. Again, this will change the annual demand figures. 4

WESTERN RANCHMAN OUTFITTERS (WRO)

The EOQ for a yearly demand of 2,000, order cost of $10.00, and holding cost of 0.12(10.05) $1.206 is EOQ

2(10)(2,000) 1.206

182.12

The solution recommends 2,000/182 11 orders to be submitted per year; WRO orders monthly. The EOQ is about 182 pairs, as compared to 167 ordered monthly. The annual cost difference is minimal. There is one remaining problem that the model doesn’t solve, but which Mr. Randell has. That is the problem of the unreliability of the supplier. By ordering one extra time (12 orders per year instead of 11) and by ordering extra quantities judiciously, Mr. Randell has managed to keep WRO almost totally supplied with the requisite number of Levis 501. Further, because the actual solution is so close to the model solution, and because we have seen that the EOQ is a robust model, Mr. Veta can feel that he is keeping his inventory goals close to the minimum while still meeting his goal of avoiding stockouts. The conclusion is that the model has been shown to be practically valid with minor adjustments that compensate for the unreliability of the manufacturer. This case differs from most in that the EOQ is just a starting point for discussion. Students must then develop their own approach and reasoning for why the current policy is acceptable or unacceptable. 5

LAPLACE POWER AND LIGHT CO.

The optimal order quantity is given by: Q* Q*

2DS H

2(499.5) u 50 41.4

34.74 thousand feet

The reorder point is given by: ROP = Daily demand u Lead time § 499.5 · =¨ ¸ (60) © 260 ¹ ROP = 115.27 thousand feet Currently, the company is committed to take 1/12th of its annual need every month. Therefore, each month the storeroom issues a purchase requisition for 41,625 feet of cable. Present TC

§ 499.5 · § 41.625 · ¨ ¸ (50) ¨ ¸ (41.4) (499.5)(414) © 41.625 ¹ © 2 ¹ = 600 + 861.62 + 206,793 = $208,254.62

§ 499.5 · § 34.74 · ¨ ¸ (50) ¨ ¸ (41.4) (499.5)(414) 34.74 © ¹ © 2 ¹ = 718.91 + 719.12 + 206,793 = $208,231.03 Savings Present TC Optimum TC $23.59

Optimum TC

Ordering costs are assumed to be a linear function because no matter how large an order is or how many orders are sent in, the cost to order any material is $50 per order. The student should recognize that it is doubtful the firm will or should alter any current ordering policy for a savings of only $23.

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