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Dna Rna Protein Synthesis Homework #4 Translation Dictionary

You have open access (no log-in or password needed) to instructional materials on the Text web site. Select "Resources" from the upper left of the page and select the text chapter you want.

You may also ask questions and see answers to your classmates' questions in Moodle in the "Talk to Ed" forum.

The content of today's lecture will help you answer the questions on these assignments:

  • Draw a diagram, create a concept map, or write a paragraph that explains the relationships among these terms:

  • chromosome allelegene expression
    trait DNA RNA polymerase
    messenger RNAtransfer RNAribosomal RNA
    codonsanticodonsribosomes
    transcriptiontranslationRNA processing
    amino acidspolypeptidesprotein
    protein foldingprimary structuresecondary structure
    tertiary structurequaternary structureintrons and exons
  • Use models of DNA, RNA, and amino acids to illustrate the connection between  the sequence of DNA nucleotides for a specific allele, such as the allele for sickle cell disease or the allele for cystic fibrosis, and the production of a specific version of a protein.

  • lllustrate transcription and translation, and the roles of RNA polymerase, messenger RNA, transfer RNA, ribosomal RNA, and ribosomes in carrying out these two processes.

  • Explain, in general terms, how the order and kinds of amino acids that make up a protein determine its final conformation and, ultimately, its function.

  • Transcription occurs in the nucleus.

  • Transcription is the process by which RNA is assembled from a DNA template by the enzyme RNA Polymerase.

  • Roger Kornberg Wins Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on RNA Polymerase

  • Transcription DNA --> RNA From DNA Interactive - a MUST SEE!!!!

    • Chose "Copying the Code" toward the bottom of the screen

    • then select "puting it together" from the top of the next screen.

    • Then choose the "Transcription animation"

  • The Information in DNA Is Decoded by Transcription From http://www.nature.com/scitable - One of my new FAVORITES!!!!
  • The TAs pointed out a conceptual error in the narration of this movie. The text of the web page is correct, but the narration is wrong. Write to me in the"Talk to Ed" forumin Moodle and tell me what you think the problem is.

  • Transcription is the synthesis of a molecule of RNA that is complementary in nucleotide sequence to one side (the transcribed or template side) of a section of the DNA double helix (that would be an allele for a specific trait). The information is copied, but in a complementary form:

    • C in the RNA is complementary with G in the DNA

    • G in the RNA is complementary with C in the DNA

    • A in the RNA is complementary with T in the DNA

    • U not T in the RNA is complementary with A in the DNA

  • DNA vs. RNA (Figure 12.2, in Hoefnagels, page 237). RNA is a single-stranded molecule, its nucleotides have the sugar ribose instead of deoxyribose and the nucleotide base uracil instead of thymine.

  • Transcription Factors (Figure 12.11, in Hoefnagels, page 246) are protein molecules that determine which genes are expressed in which tissues at which stages of development. The promotor, a control sequence near the start of the gene, attracts a binding protein and then other transcription factors. It tells the enzyme RNA polymerase where to bind and begin making RNA.

  • Enzymes unwind the DNA strand, and RNA polymerase builds the RNA chain using the transcribed strand of the DNA double helix as a template.

  • DNA, RNA, and the Transcribed (Template) Strand of DNA (Figure 12.3, in Hoefnagels, page 238).

  • The Three Stages of Transcription(Figure 12.3, in Hoefnagels, page 238). Many identical copies of RNA are simultaneously transcribed, with one RNA polymerase starting after another. RNA is relatively short-lived, so a cell must constantly transcribe certain genes to maintain supplies of essential proteins.


  • RNA Processing

  • RNA undergoes processing in the nucleus after transcription.

    • Messenger RNA Processing(See Figure 12.4 in your Hoefnagels text.)

    • A "cap" is added to the 5' end of the molecule, and a "poly-A tail" is added to the 3' end. (Think of this as a "hall pass," permitting the molecule to leave the nucleus.)

    • Noncoding sequences called introns are removed. Introns (intervening or noncoding sections of DNA) produce sections of RNA that are removed by enzymes, leaving only the sections of RNA produced by exons in the DNA to be put back together.

    • The messenger RNA is now "mature" and can exit the nucleus. RNA molecules move into the cytoplasm via nuclear membane pores.


    Three Types of RNA are Produced by Transcription of Specific Genes

    • Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a complimentary copy of one strand (the template, or transcribed strand) of a section of a DNA molecule making up an allele. It acts as a messenger to carry information stored in the DNA in the nucleus to the cytoplasm where the ribosomes on the Endoplasmic Reticulum can translate it to synthesize protein molecules. Each three mRNA bases in a row forms a Codon (from accessexcellence.org) that specifies a particular amino acid.

    • Transfer RNA (tRNA) (see Hoefnagels text fig. 12.6, pg. 241) is small and has a very specific secondary and tertiary structure such that it can bind an amino acid at one end and mRNA at the other. It carries each amino acid to the ribosome. tRNA contains a sequence of 3 nucleotide bases at one end of the molecule called an anticodon. This Anticodon (from accessexcellence.org) is complementary to a particular codon of an mRNA molecule.

    • Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is one of the structural components of a Ribosome (see Hoefnagels  text fig. 12.7, pg. 241). Ribosomes structurally support and catalyze protein synthesis. In eukaryotes, a ribosome has two subunits (large and small), containing 82 proteins and four rRNA molecules all together.

    • Three Scientists Awarded Nobel prize in Chemistry for Research on the Structure of Ribosomes.

    The Genetic Code

    (Hoefnagels Text table 12.2, pg. 240)

    The Genetic Code (from accessexcellence.org), for the translation of codons to amino acids

    • Three consecutive bases in a mRNA molecule form a Codon (from accessexcellence.org) that is a code for one amino acid.

    • The code is redundant, with some amino acids having more than one codon. For example, the codons GCU, GCC, GCA, and GCG all code for alanine (Ala).

    • A change in the first or second bases of a codon are more likely to affect the "meaning" of a codon than a change in the third base.

    • The codon AUG starts translation, and the codons UGA, UAA, and UAG stop translation.


    Translation: RNA to Protein

    • Translation occurs in the cytoplasm at the ribosomes on the E.R.

    • Translation is the process by which the information carried in messenger RNA is used to direct the synthesis of a polypeptide. See Fig. 12.8, pg. 242 in Hoefnagels  text.

    • Translation mRNA --> Protein From DNA Interactive - a MUST SEE!!!!

      • Chose "Reading the Code" toward the bottom of the screen

      • then select "puting it together" from the top of the next screen.

      • Then choose the "Translation animation"

    • The Information in DNA Determines Cellular Function via Translation From http://www.nature.com/scitable - One of my new FAVORITES!!!!
    • The Three Stages of Translation

      • Initiation: the first mRNA codon AUG forms a complex with an initiator tRNA (carrying the amino acid methionine) and the small ribosomal subunit. See Fig. 12.8, pg. 242 in Hoefnagels  text.  The large ribosomal subunit then joins this complex to begin the next stage.

      • Elongation: the stepwise addition of amino acids to a growing polypeptide chain. The amino acids are carried to the ribosome by the tRNAs. The ribosome moves along the mRNA one codon at a time, transferring new amino acids to the growing polypeptide chain via peptide bonds. See Fig. 12.8, pg. 242 in Hoefnagels  text.

      • Termination: elongation stops at an mRNA stop codon (UGA, UAA, UAG), and the new polypeptide is released. The ribosome breaks into its large and small subunits, releasing the new protein and the mRNA. See Fig. 12.8, pg. 242 in Hoefnagels  text.

    • Several ribosomes (polyribosomes) can translate the same mRNA molecule simultaneously. See fig. 12.9, pg. 244 in Hoefnagels  text.
      Chaparone proteins help guide the folding of the new protein (polypeptide).

    Product Description

    This product contains 4 different homework assignments that you can use as you are teaching a unit on DNA, RNA and Protein Synthesis. I have divided the information into the following four assignments:

    Homework #1: The Basics of DNA

    Homework #2: DNA Replication

    Homework #3: RNA and Transcription

    Homework #4: Protein Synthesis and Translation

    Please Note: These homework assignments are included in complete unit plan bundle which can be viewed at this link: DNA, RNA, and Protein Synthesis: Complete Unit Plan of 20 products


    These were written for my Biology I class. It covers the concepts found in any Biology I text. Each homework assignment contains questions of varying formats: Compare and contrast terms, fill in the blank, multiple choice, short answer, and true/false.

    Each of these assignments is available for separate purchase, but the bundle is offered at a discount.

    This is what is covered on each assignment:
    Homework #1: DNA Basics (Total of 42 questions)

    1. Genes must be able to do what three things?
    2. Nucleotides: sugars, phosphates, nitrogen bases
    3. The five nitrogen bases
    4. Purines and pyrimidines
    5. Structure of the DNA molecule
    6. Chargaffs rules
    7. Historical information: Rosalind Franklin, James Watson, Francis Crick, Maurice Wilkins
    8. Base pairing rules and complimentary bases
    9. Bonding in the DNA molecule
    10. Packing of a large amount of DNA in the small space of the nucleus

    Homework #2: DNA Replication (Total of 39 questions)
    1. Replication
    2. Steps of replication
    3. Origins of replication and replication forks
    4. Enzymes: Helicases and DNA polymerases
    5. DNA proofreading
    6. Repairing damage to DNA: Enzymes nucleases, DNA polymerases, ligases.

    Homework #3: RNA and Transcription (Total of 37 questions)
    1. The genetic code: codons, amino acids, gene expression, codon triplets specify amino acids, protein building instructions.
    2. The differences between DNA and RNA
    3. The three type of RNA and the function of each type.
    4. Transcription: definition, purpose, result, steps in transcription
    5. RNA processing and editing: why RNA must be modified, introns, exons

    Homework #4: Translation and Protein Synthesis (Total of 50 questions)
    1. The Genetic Code: codons, amino acids, gene expression, codon triplets specify amino acids, protein building instructions.
    2. Start and stop codons
    3. 64 possible codon combinations and the amino acids they code for
    4. Translation: Definition, purpose of translation, steps in translation
    5. The role of tRNA in translation
    6. Codons and Anticodons
    7. The importance of reading the codons in the correct order
    8. Sample Problem: Given the sequence on the DNA molecule, students will give the mRNA codon sequence, the tRNA anticodon sequence, and the order of amino acids for coded for.
    9. Structure of the ribosome: large and small subunits, mRNA binding site, three binding sites for tRNA
    10. Mutations: Definition, gene mutations, chromosome mutations, point mutations, frameshift mutations, substitutions, deletions, insertions, the importance of mutations in natural selection.

    My materials are easily adaptable. You can easily add or delete questions. You will receive both a pdf and a Word document version of all assignments.

    All answers are included.

    Also included is a chart of all 64 codons and the amino acids they code for.

    Please let me know if you have any questions. Thanks for looking!

    Related products include:

    DNA, RNA, and Protein Synthesis: Complete Unit Plan of 20 products

    DNA, RNA, Protein Synthesis Powerpoint and Notes for Student and Teacher

    DNA, RNA, and Protein Synthesis Warm Ups and Bell Ringers

    Biology Buzz Words: DNA, RNA, and Protein Synthesis

    Lab: Effect of Environment on Gene Expression

    DNA Powerpoint Jeopardy Game

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    Lab: Determining the Traits of a Mystery Organism Through Protein Synthesis

    DNA, RNA and Protein Synthesis Crossword Puzzle

    Test: DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis

    DNA Quiz or Homework (Advanced)

    Crossword Puzzle: DNA and Replication

    DNA, RNA and Protein Synthesis Worksheet or Study Guide

    Test: DNA and Replication

    Homework #1: The Basics of DNA

    Homework #2: DNA Replication

    Homework #3: RNA and Transcription

    Homework #4: Protein Synthesis and Translation

    DNA, RNA, Protein Synthesis - Set of 3 quizzes

    Free DNA Informational Text with Graphic Organizers

    Quiz #1: DNA and Replication

    Quiz #2: RNA and Transcription

    Quiz #3: Translation and Protein Synthesis

    RNA and Transcription Powerpoint Jeopardy Review Game

    Translation and Protein Synthesis Powerpoint Jeopardy Review Game

    DNA and RNA Powerpoint Jeopardy REview Games - Set of Three Games

    Test: RNA, transcription and translation

    FREE Chart of Amino Acids and Their Codons

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