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John Szarkowski Mirrors And Windows Essay Definition

Thaddeus John Szarkowski (December 18, 1925 – July 7, 2007)[1] was a photographer, curator, historian, and critic.[2] From 1962 to 1991 Szarkowski was the Director of Photography at New York's Museum of Modern Art (MoMA).[3]

Early life and career[edit]

He was born and grew up in the small northern Wisconsin city of Ashland, and became interested in photography at age eleven. In World War II Szarkowski served in the U.S. Army, after which he graduated in 1947 in Art History from the University of Wisconsin–Madison. He then began his career as a museum photographer at the Walker Art Center, Minneapolis.

At this time he was also a practicing art photographer; he had his first solo show at the Walker Art Center in 1949, the first of a number of solo exhibitions. In 1954 Szarkowski received the first of two Guggenheim Fellowships, resulting in the book The Idea of Louis Sullivan (1956). Between 1958 and 1962, he returned to rural Wisconsin. There, he undertook a second Guggenheim fellowship in 1961, researching into ideas about wilderness and the relationship between people and the land.

Museum of Modern Art[edit]

On July 1, 1962 Szarkowski was appointed the Director of the Department of Photography of The Museum of Modern Art.[4] He was picked by Edward Steichen to be Steichen's successor.

In 1973 Szarkowski published Looking at Photographs a practical set of examples on how to write about photographs.[3] The book is still required reading for students of photography, and argues for the importance of looking carefully and bringing to bear every bit of intelligence and understanding possessed by the viewer. Szarkowski has also published numerous books on individual photographers, including, with Maria Morris Hamburg, the definitive four-volume work on the photography of Atget.

He wrote Mirrors and Windows: American Photography Since 1960 (1978) describing photography which dichotomized two strategies of pictoral expression. The 'Mirror' strategy focuses on self-expressive photography and the 'Window' element in which photographers like Diane Arbus, Lee Friedlander, Henry Wessel, and Garry Winogrand leave their comfort zone to explore.

He taught at Harvard, Yale, Cornell, and New York University, and continued to lecture and teach. In 1990, U.S. News & World Report said: "Szarkowski's thinking, whether Americans know it or not, has become our thinking about photography".[5]

In 1991 Szarkowski retired from his post at the MoMA, during which he had developed a reputation for being somewhat autocratic,[citation needed] and became the Museum's Photography Director Emeritus. He was succeeded by Peter Galassi, the Joel and Anne Ehrenkranz Chief Curator of the Department of Photography at The Museum of Modern Art.[6][7]

Exhibitions curated by Szarkowski[edit]

  • 1963: The Photographer and the American Landscape. Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY.[8]
  • 1964: Andre Kertesz. Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY.[9] Retrospective exhibition.
  • 1964: The Photographer's Eye. Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY.[10]
  • 1965: The Photo Essay. Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY.[11]
  • 1966: Dorthea Lange. Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY.[12] Retrospective exhibition.
  • 1967: Once Invisible. Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY.[13]
  • 1967: New Documents. Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY.[14]
  • 1968: Henri Cartier Bresson. Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY.[15] Retrospective exhibition.
  • 1968: Brassai. Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY.[16] Retrospective exhibition.
  • 1969: Bill Brandt.Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY.[17] Retrospective exhibition.
  • 1969: Eugene Atget. Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY.[18] Retrospective exhibition.
  • 1969: Garry Winorgrand: The Animals. Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY.[19]
  • 1970: New Acquisitions. Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY.[20]
  • 1970: Bruce Davidson: East 100th Street. Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY.[21]
  • 1970: E.J. Bellocq: Storyville Portraits. Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY [22]
  • 1971: Photographs by Walker Evans. Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY [23] Retrospective exhibition.
  • 1972: Diane Arbus. Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY. [24] Retrospective exhibition.
  • 1995: Ansel Adams at 100. San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, CA. Curated with Sandra S. Phillips.


In retirement, Szarkowski served on the boards of several of the mutual funds sold by Dreyfus Corporation. Szarkowski returned to making his own photographic work, mostly attempting to picture a spirit of place in the American landscape. In 2005 he had several major solo exhibitions across the USA. The first retrospective of his work was exhibited at MOMA in early 2006.[25]

Szarkowski died from complications of a stroke on July 7, 2007 in Pittsfield, Massachusetts, aged 81.[26]


In conjunction with exhibitions curated by Szarkowski[edit]

  • "The Photographs of Jacques Henri Lartigue", New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1963. ASIN B0018MX7JK
  • The Animals, New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1969. ASIN B0006BWLBO
  • E.J. Bellocq Storyville Portraits, New York: Little Brown & Co, 1970. ISBN 978-0870702501
  • From the Picture Press, New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1973. ISBN 978-0870703348
  • New Japanese Photography, New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1974. ISBN 978-0870705021
  • William Eggelston's Guide, New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1976. ISBN 978-0262050180
  • Callahan, New York: Museum of Modern Art; New York, Aperture, 1976. ISBN 978-0900406836
  • Mirrors and Windows: American Photography since 1960, New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1978. ISBN 978-0870704765
  • American Landscapes, New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1981. ISBN 978-0870702075
  • Irving Penn, New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1984. ISBN 978-0870705625
  • Winogrand: Figments from the Real World, New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1988. ISBN 978-0870706400
  • Photography Until Now, New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1989. ISBN 978-0870705731
  • Ansel Adams at 100, 2001. ISBN 978-0821225158

Photographic theory by Szarkowski[edit]

Writing contributions by Szarkowski[edit]

  • The Portfolios of Ansel Adams. New York: Bulfinch, 1977. ISBN 978-0821207239.
  • Wright Morris: Origin of a Species. San Francisco: San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, 1992. ISBN 978-0918471246.
  • Jan Groover: Photographs. New York: Bulfinch, 1993. ISBN 978-0821220061.
  • Alfred Stieglitz at Lake George. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1995. ASIN B00276L2CA.
  • Bellocq: Photographs from Storyville, the Red-Light District of New Orleans. New York: Random House, 1996. ISBN 978-0679449751.
  • A Maritime Album: 100 Photographs and Their Stories. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997. ISBN 978-0300073423.
  • Atget. New York: Callaway, 2000. ISBN 978-0935112566.
  • Still Life: Irving Penn Photographs, 1938-2000.Thames & Hudson, 2001. ISBN 978-0500542484.
  • Nature. Göttingen: Steidl; New York: Pace/MacGill, 2007. ISBN 978-3865214379.

Containing Szarkowski's photographic works[edit]

Documentaries about Szarkowski[edit]

  • John Szarkowski: A Life in Photography (Checkerboard, 1998). 48-minute documentary on his life and work.
  • Speaking of Art: John Szarkowski on John Szarkowski (Checkerboard, 2005). 60-minute film of a lecture in which he talks about his own photography.

Exhibitions of Szarkowski's photographs[edit]


Further reading[edit]

  • Philip Gefter. "The Photographer's Curator Curates His Own," The New York Times, (January 30, 2005)
  • Andy Grundberg. "An Interview with John Szarkowski". Afterimage, Volume 12 No. 3 (October 1984), pages 12–13.
  • "An interview with John Szarkowski". Modern Painters (Spring 2004).
  • Hilton Als. "Looking at Pictures". Grand Street, No. 59, page 102.
  • Mark Haworth-Booth. "An Interview with John Szarkowski". History of Photography, Vol. 15, No. 4 (1991), pages 302–306.

External links[edit]

  • LA Weekly interview with Szarkowski from December 2006. "Talking Pictures" by Holly Myers and Tom Christie.
  1. ^https://www.nytimes.com/2007/07/09/arts/09szarkowski.html?_r=0
  2. ^O'Hagan, Sean (20 July 2010). "Was John Szarkowski the most influential person in 20th-century photography?". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 February 2015. 
  3. ^ abSchudel, Matt (July 13, 2007). "John Szarkowski, 81; Cast New Light on Photography". The Washington Post. 
  4. ^https://www.moma.org/momaorg/shared/pdfs/docs/press_archives/4789/releases/MOMA_1972_0018_16.pdf?2010
  5. ^Horn, Miriam (February 12, 1990). "American Vision: The eye of John Szarkowski". U.S. News & World Report. 
  6. ^https://www.moma.org/momaorg/shared/pdfs/docs/press_archives/6977/releases/MOMA_1991_0106_76.pdf?2010
  7. ^http://press.moma.org/wp-content/files_mf/petergalassiretirement_pressreleasefinal14.pdf
  8. ^https://www.moma.org/momaorg/shared/pdfs/docs/press_archives/3193/releases/MOMA_1963_0105_100.pdf
  9. ^https://www.moma.org/momaorg/shared/pdfs/docs/press_archives/3343/releases/MOMA_1964_0130_1964-11-24_85.pdf?2010
  10. ^https://www.moma.org/momaorg/shared/pdfs/docs/press_archives/3231/releases/MOMA_1964_0018_1964-05-27_20.pdf
  11. ^https://www.moma.org/momaorg/shared/pdfs/docs/press_archives/3450/releases/MOMA_1965_0026_23.pdf
  12. ^https://www.moma.org/momaorg/shared/pdfs/docs/press_archives/3574/releases/MOMA_1966_Jan-June_0008_7.pdf?2010
  13. ^https://www.moma.org/momaorg/shared/pdfs/docs/press_archives/3910/releases/MOMA_1967_Jan-June_0084_62.pdf?2010
  14. ^https://www.moma.org/momaorg/shared/pdfs/docs/press_archives/3860/releases/MOMA_1967_Jan-June_0034_21.pdf?2010
  15. ^http://www.moma.org/momaorg/shared/pdfs/docs/press_archives/4063/releases/MOMA_1968_Jan-June_0080_57.pdf?2010
  16. ^https://www.moma.org/momaorg/shared/pdfs/docs/press_archives/4135/releases/MOMA_1968_July-December_0067_109.pdf?2010
  17. ^http://www.moma.org/momaorg/shared/pdfs/docs/press_archives/4332/releases/MOMA_1969_July-December_0025_113.pdf?2010
  18. ^http://www.moma.org/momaorg/shared/pdfs/docs/press_archives/4378/releases/MOMA_1969_July-December_0071_146.pdf?2010
  19. ^https://www.moma.org/momaorg/shared/pdfs/docs/press_archives/4362/releases/MOMA_1969_July-December_0055_133.pdf
  20. ^https://www.moma.org/momaorg/shared/pdfs/docs/press_archives/4442/releases/MOMA_1970_Jan-June_0039_40.pdf?2010
  21. ^https://www.moma.org/momaorg/shared/pdfs/docs/press_archives/4518/releases/MOMA_1970_July-December_0037_97.pdf?2010
  22. ^https://www.moma.org/documents/moma_press-release_326711.pdf
  23. ^https://www.moma.org/momaorg/shared/pdfs/docs/press_archives/4579/releases/MOMA_1971_0016_15.pdf?2010
  24. ^https://www.moma.org/documents/moma_press-release_326815.pdf
  25. ^"John Szarkowski: Photographs February 1–May 15, 2006". Museum of Modern Art. 
  26. ^Gefter, Philip (July 9, 2007). "John Szarkowski, Curator of Photography, Dies at 81". The New York Times. 
  27. ^"John Szarkowski: Photographs To Open At SFMOMA". San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. Retrieved 8 February 2015. 
  28. ^"John Szarkowski: Photographs". Museum of Modern Art. Retrieved 8 February 2015. 

John Szarkowski’s book The Photographers Eye was based on an exhibition of the same name held at the Musuem Of Modern Art in New Work in 1964. It featured the work of Friedlander, Evans, Strand and many others, and attempted to give an overview of the fundamental challenges and opportunities of the photographic medium. In the introduction to the book, he offers a brief historical overview of photography in terms of how it has evolved and how he sees it as a unique artistic medium.

Szarkowski begins by stating a core tenet of his outlook on photography which is that it is fundamentally different from other picture-making processes in that it is based on selection rather than synthesis – the photographer takes elements of the real world for his picture, whereas the painter makes the elements of his picture from scratch. This immediately posed a new creative dilemma – how can this process be used to create meaningful pictures and valid art? This question would not be answered by means of recourse to existing theories of visual art, but instead tackled by a rag-bag consortium of commercial photographers, amateur enthusiasts and casual snap-shooters, who may not have been consciously trying to answer it at all, but nevertheless have managed to evolve an aesthetic practice that defines what photography is.

This observation is the first of many within the essay that Szarkowski uses to argue for photography as having a unique place within the broader world of artistic practice. He then goes on to discuss a number of specific characteristics of the medium that, taken together, constitute a case for its inclusion as an art-form on a par with other visual practices such as painting.

The first of these is what he calls the thing itself. By this he means that photography provides representations of the real world, and the photographers art is one of seeking out and revealing that which is already there. An interesting dichotomy arises here between the public perception (now shattered, of course) of the photograph’s inability to lie, and the photographers awareness of this not really being the case. Szarkowski suggests that in response to this problem the photographer will often claim (somewhat disingenuously) that what the picture depicts is real but what the eye saw was an illusion. This position is given credence by the fact that images survive while memories fade, and hence the image often becomes the remembered reality.

The next inherent characteristic of the medium is the detail. Photography is tied to depicting reality and furthermore depicting reality as it happens, in the presence of the photographer. The photographer cannot ‘pose the truth’ but merely capture fragments of that truth as it unfolds before him/her. Photography therefore has to be content representing the details of a narrative or an event, rather than attempting to represent the entire thing. A useful analogy here might be that of capturing a football match. Whereas a television broadcast or a written account could claim to be capturing everything that happened, photographs can only capture discrete fragments of what happened. As such, photographs cannot tell stories, but they can capture details of things that have symbolic significance, and that might previously have been overlooked. Szarkowski claims that such details can reveal depths of undiscovered meaning that may be lost in a straight narrative account, and that the function of photography is not to tell a story, but to make a story real.

The frame refers to the edges of the photograph, and is the demarcation between the elements of the real scene that the photographer decided to include, and the elements he/she decided to leave out. The photographer can look at the world like a scroll painting, offering an infinite number of possible compositions as the lens is moved up and down, and left and right. This observation is closely related to the initial one regarding photography as a process of selection rather than synthesis, with framing being a part of the process of selection.

The fourth characteristic is that of time. Photographs are not instantaneous but rather a rendering of the scene over a discrete parcel of time. Furthermore this time is always the present, so photographs cannot directly represent the past or the future, but merely allude to it. Szarkowski describes two ways in which time exposure produces unique images and insights. The first one is when long time exposures (e.g. in the early days of slow lenses) produced images that had never been seen before – blurred figures, dogs with two heads and so on. The second is when short time exposures allowed us to see details previously lost in the blur of movement. For example, Muybridge‘s studies of galloping horses allowed us to understand the horse’s gait in a way we did not before. Similarly, Cartier-Bresson‘s notion of the decisive moment is only made possible by the ability of the camera to freeze a short parcel of time.

The final characteristic that Szarkowski identifies is that of the vantage point. The photographer has to  photograph the subject from one of whatever range of vantage points happen to be available, and these may be less than ideal. Rather than this being a failing of photography however, this has proven to be a boon, as photograph has shown us the world from a variety of unusual and unique angles and perspectives, and in doing so has altered our perception of the world.

Szarkowski finishes his piece by arguing for the place of photography as a unique medium that has both  profoundly influenced how we view the world and also profoundly influenced a broader artistic practice outside itself. He likens photography to an ‘organism’ that was born whole – the history of photography is not one of development of the medium, but development of our understanding of what the medium can do.

Szarkowski is essentially mounting a case for the place of photography as an art-form and defining the unique characteristics that differentiate it from other visual art-forms such as painting. His essay is an exposition of the Modernist idea of medium specificity applied to photography. If we accept this notion that what defines an art-form are the specific characteristics of the medium itself (rather than, for example, the purposes and uses to which the medium is put) then he presents a strong case. This is not to say, however that one cannot take issue with some of the specific characteristics he puts forward.

For example, great emphasis is placed on how photography is a process of selection rather than synthesis. One could easily argue though that the painter also engages in a process of selection, in that he/she must select what to paint. Szarkowski would say that the painter selects from their imagination, whereas the photographer must select from the real world, however the rise of constructed and staged photography over the last few decades largely destroys this distinction.

Similarly photography’s concentration on the detail, and the consequent necessity of seeing it as a symbolic rather than a narrative medium, could also be said to be a characteristic of painting. The difference of course, is that the painter can arrange all elements of the scene in such a way that a narrative can be constructed, but once again, whereas in Szarkowski’s time such an approach to photography was unheard of, it is now an established practice in the work of artists such as Jeff Wall.

I am going to use one of Elliot Erwitt‘s dog photographs to illustrate this post. Erwitt is a photographer who is very much situated in the New York modernist tradition that Szarkowski has done so much to promote. His photographs of dogs, serve as excellent examples of Szarkowski’s notion of vantage point as providing us with a unique view of the world that we would not necessarily encounter through a medium other than photography.

Photograph by Elliot Erwitt

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Posted in Writing | Tagged art, elliot erwitt, jeff wall, john szarkowski, modernism, ncad, photography, Photography Criticism, realism, the photographer's eye, visual culture | 10 Comments

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