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Prevention Juvenile Delinquency Essay

Nowadays, juvenile delinquency is not considered as small social problem. One of crimes of juvenile, juveniles' murder accounts for almost 10 percentage of murder happening in the U.S. And now some people insist that they should be regarded as adults. They want them to be punished harsher and raise their voice to make harsher punishments came into action. However unlike their opinions, others think that the most effective way to juvenile delinquency is prevention. There are several measures: making more cops in the school; making education programs to help parents make appropriate parental education on their children; curfew; direct education toward children, which educate them things related to delinquency are harmful; putting more additional education on children who need support in learning; and making recreational program which can prevent them from delinquency and give them social skills...etc. From the research I have done, I could prove that one of prevention method, education should be implemented other than tougher punishments toward juvenile delinquents because of its numerous advantages to the juveniles themselves and social advantages in the long-term period.

The first step that people should know about this issue is how serious juvenile delinquency as a social problem. First, people should focus on the fast growing population of juvenile delinquency. Comparison of incarcerated population among juvenile delinquents between 1965 and 1991, tells increased juvenile delinquency in the U.S. (Even though the population of 1965 youngster group was more than around 6 million, the incarceration population of 1991 was about two times.) And this severe situation pressed the House to announce that the juvenile delinquency as a "national emergency". However unlike the government announcement, authorities expected doubled population of youngsters' crimes in 2010. And recent research found that just over two million youth under the age of 18 were arrested in 2008. In addition to this fast growth of youngster's crimes, according to the FBI data, 13 percent of all violent crimes were conducted by juveniles, and nearly 10 percent of murders were conducted by them. ("Preventing Juvenile Crime) All these evidences indicate that proper measure should be implemented toward the juveniles.

To deal with the issues, some people insist tougher punishment toward juvenile delinquents or other prevention measures like increasing police forces; however, it does not seem as proper choice dealing with this issue. First, increasing police forces cannot be greater method under cost-effective perspective. Yu Aoki, from department of economics in University of Warwick says:

"... it is less expensive to reach target level of social benefits by improving schooling
(Ľ648,191 thousand without foregone earnings and Ľ1,930,368 thousand with
foregone earnings) than by strengthening police forces" ("Does schooling reduce...")
His saying can be the one of evidences which tells the strengthening police forces is not the best choice dealing with juvenile delinquency. And one of side effects of making tougher punishment is super-predators' showing up to the surface of water. Tougher punishment can be the solution to the youngsters' crime in the short-terms; however, in the long-term, it can cause other social problems. Not recognizing how bad behaviors they have, they might express more angers for the governmental power. And their angers can bring other severe crimes in the future, and the governments' suppression would be greater as degrees and amounts of their violent crimes. One of the causes of the American Revolution might be the British's suppression toward American. Too much suppression can cause unexpected bad things in the future. Suppression measure is like endless war and cause a vicious circle on and on. In addition to this, if the tougher punishment policy initiated, the governmental power will be increased as well. One of the representatives of governmental power, the police force might exert too much their power toward juveniles and citizens. This kind of unbalanced power can cause several side effects. For instance, policeman's violent attitude and behaviors

Toward citizens can be justified under the governmental power, which can lead loss of their credibility from the citizens. Too much power on police is like surgery or chemotherapy to lung cancer. Surgery or chemotherapy cannot reduce the rate of the cancer; therefore people need to find another measure. Mere this poor approach cannot be the answer for the delinquency.

From the research I could find that the education and educational environment is highly related to the juvenile delinquency for several reasons. The study revealed that the low educational attainment of youngsters' can be the significant reason for their future participating in the crime. Therefore, people should help them by educating when they are young. In order to prevent the violent crime from them, proper education is highly needed on them. And also, it is not too much to say that environment during their age is highly important. Youngsters grow up seeing others how to behave to the norms and society. At the early ages, without having their own perspectives and defensive equipments they tend to accept to many things from their surroundings. Youth living in high-crime neighborhoods can be exposed to the environment which does not think the crime as harmful as normal people, and this could lead them offending toward society. Likewise, their environment is also crucial to their offending. The environment of them can be categorized into two areas. One is their family environment. It is often shown that problems of family during the juvenile period cause bad offending in the future. However, unlike some people think, problems of family not always can be solved by their own efforts. Even parents need to get a proper education on how to parenting their children and learn how to communicate with the ages of their children. When it comes to their environment, educating their parents with them is highly effective. The most influential people around the world are not others; it is their parents. The other environment is school environment. There is a study which tells that strong bonds to school decrease the delinquency. They should be treated differently from others, and teachers have to make some ways which lead them to think school is good place. Likewise education and educational environment is highly related to the delinquency and should be solved with the education measure.

One of the great advantages of education is adequate and cost-effective. Resources are limited to human so people have to use the resources properly. There are two evidences which supports that the education is cost-effective. An honored social-policy researcher, Marcia Chaiken in Alexandria, Va, said:

"Prevention is more cost-effective than punishment. We have strong evidence from research that for the vast majority of at-risk children, approaches such as teaching parents good parenting skills combined with early education and youth development can prevent later delinquency." ("Preventing Juvenile" CQ research)

Like the researcher said, it is proven that the education is cost-effective and works well on the juvenile delinquency. High/Scope Perry Pre-school Project (a cost-benefit analysis) proved that the total costs of the program were calculated at $12,356 per participant, and the benefits were estimated roughly seven times more than the total costs. ("Child Delinquency...") And also, some findings tell that the education is proper method to reduce juvenile delinquency. First, not only important education on children, education on their parents is important. It is proven that programs that teaching parents how to behave and educate toward their children has positive impact on their children. The problems of children often based on their parents' misbehavior toward them or society, and unlike the others parents are the most influential figures to their children. Children watch their behaviors and learn how to behave. In addition to this, educating children is crucial to reduce the delinquency. One of direct educations toward the children is educating effective communication skills; how to control the anger; and how to follow the rules. And these measures are effective to reduce the children's delinquency for some reasons. First, it is proven that juveniles who have low communication skills and achievement tend to show more delinquency, and the violence is based on the anger; therefore, additional supports on their academic improvement and teach them how to control their anger is important. Teaching how to follow the rule is important because they may be felt antipathy to the society which punishes them when they violate the rules; they might do not know how badly their delinquency and the results from their behavior. And, when the education toward parents and their children conducted simultaneously, it is easier to get the positive and rapid outcomes in the future. In addition to this, natural experiment in Japan after the Great Hanshin-Awa ji earthquake in 1995 proves how important the education is to reduce the juveniles' delinquency. The author wrote a report that is made a comparison between municipalities without policy intervention and municipalities with policy intervention. The conditions between two groups were almost same: all of them were exposed to similar degrees of earthquake damages. The policy intervention led higher high school participation rate, and subsequently, the municipalities with policy intervention showed reduced arrests rate for violent crime. However, the municipalities without intervention showed no differences. According to the author, high school participation rate of with intervention showed roughly 1.109 percent points increased of high school participation rate and subsequently, juveniles' violent crime rate dropped roughly 0.114 per 1,000 juvenile population on average; it is corresponding to roughly 24 percent reduction on juveniles' violent crimes. (Yu Aoki) This incredible result tells people that how education is important to decrease their violent delinquency. In addition to his, higher opportunity cost of committing crimes can reduce the juvenile crimes. (Ehrlich, 1975; Huang et al., 2004; Lochner, 2004) Opportunity cost is the benefit that could have been alternative use of the same resource. Through the education people learn that there's an opportunity cost of committing crimes, and that makes people stop their misbehavior. And more education people have there's more possibility to get a high income in the future, and more opportunity cost people will get. Likewise if juveniles learn about their opportunity cost from the education and be afraid of the outcomes they will get from the offending, they will stop delinquency. The more juveniles gain education, the more things they will lose from the crimes. And some people say that more schooling decreases the crime rate because the amount of time the juveniles get involved in delinquency will be reduced. For instance, seniors of high school in Korea rarely get involved in juvenile delinquency because of schooling. Their duty is to go to school by 8:00 A.M and finish their schooling by 9:00 P.M.; therefore, it is hard for them to commit crimes. This example tells that not only quality of education, amount of education is also crucial to prevent the juvenile delinquency. Likewise, education is the cost-effective way to deal with delinquency and adequate measure to reduce the delinquency.

Moreover, not only does the education reduce the delinquency, but it also has other advantages to the juveniles and society. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) states,

"..., several intervention programs have revealed other impor-tant spinoff benefits, such as improved outcomes in educational achievement, health, and parent-child relationships" ("Child Delinquency...")

Like their saying, there are several other benefits the juveniles will get from the education. Juveniles who get adequate education system will show educational achievement; which make them be confident at everything and get a mind of wide scope. And as OJJDP states, they will be healthier than before. The bad habits or behavior often created by ignorance. Without proper education on healthy diets and dangerous substances, it is hard for them to stop their bad habits on diets and take maleficent substances. For instance, juveniles often tend to believe peer group more than others. And there is a peer pressure which leads them to misbehavior. At this point, education can teach them what is actually good for their bodies. Moreover, developed relationship between parents and children from the education will make harmonious family. There is a saying that harmony in a family brings the harmony in the nation. Likewise, if people want to make a good country, it is more adequate to choose education. And most of all, education brings social benefits in the long-term period. The education on the early stage of life does not only affect their current life but also affect the rest of their life. And this long-term effect of juveniles can be continued to their children. When they become adults they will know how to treat their children and what to teach them. Educational attainment will also make efficient communication with their children. Like this, education will make virtuous circle in the long-term period; therefore, the education cannot be overvalued.

To the people who are concerning about juvenile delinquents' problems, this research paper will give them conviction that several benefits of education make the education as the best measure for solving the juvenile delinquency. When it comes to dealing with juvenile delinquency, people should deal this issue with long-term perspective. Even though the crime rate of them could be lowered temporary from other measures, in the long-term there are several side effects can be occurred from other measures. Juveniles are not like animals. Unlike some people think, restricting and punishing are not good method for solving the juvenile delinquency. People should teach them why misbehavior is bad and why learning communication skills are so important to them. Through the education they can recognize what they will get and what they will lose from their offending. Education is crucial measure to make responsible people in the future. And people should rethink that what exactly they will get from the education. The first step of reducing juveniles' delinquency is not wanting them to change rapidly. The ones who should be changed in advance are the people.

Works Cited
Donegan, Craig. "Preventing Juvenile Crime." CQ Researcher 15 Mar. 1996: 217-40.
Web. 30 Apr. 2016.
Loeber, Rolf; Farrington, David P.; Petechuk, David. "Child Delinquency:
Early Intervention and Prevention. Child Delinquency Bulletin Series."
Department of Justice, Washington, DC. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. May 2003. Web. April 30. 2016
Yu AOKI. "Does schooling reduce juvenile delinquency?
Evidence from a natural experiment in Japan." University of Warwick.
Department of Economics. United Kingdom. March 2010. Web. 30 April, 2016

Hi, Sangho!
Let me share several things of your opening paragraph.

1) For me, the sentence below has incomplete meaning due to the missing of verb or even phrase.

One of crimes of juvenile(is) juveniles' murder (that) accounts for almost 10 percentage of murder happening in the U.S.

2) The red colors below refers to the words that need to be revised.

They want them to be punished harsher and raise their voice to make harsher punishments came into action. >> the word 'them' if it refers to juvenile which similar with the subject 'they' should be revised into 'themselves' to avoid confusion, and the word 'came' since you use present from the beginning, it has to be 'come' in order to maintain the tense's consistency. Beside, I think the punctuation also need to be considered. My example is as below:

They want themselves to be punished harsher(coma is needed here) and raise their voices to make harsher punishments co me into action.

3) I think you miss some words in this sentence, so I give you alternative words to add to complete the meaning in your sentence like below:

However unlike their opinions, others think that the most effective way to (overcome/deal with ) juvenile delinquency is (doing/having) prevention.

4) And here are my suggestions the rest of first paragraph.
There are several measures: making more cops in the school; making education programs to help parents make appropriate parental education on their children; curfew; direct education toward children, which educate them things related to delinquency are harmful; putting more additional education on children who need support in learning; and making recreational program which can prevent them from delinquency and give them social skills...etc >> the corrections are as follow:

more cops >> do you mean 'student cops' or another kind of cop?, if it is student you better make it specific with mentioning the 'student' there.

making >> nothing wrong, the meaning is delivered, but it is better to use the word 'creating/establishing/composing' to make it more appropriate.

make >> in making
on >> to
them things >> ...them (that) things...
and give them social skills...etc >> the(...) should be revised by coma (,), and instead of using , it's better to use 'and many more'.

From the research I have done, I could provethat one of prevention method , education should be implemented other than tougher punishments toward juvenile delinquents because of its numerous advantages to the juveniles themselves and social advantages in the long-term period.

Here are the corrections:

From >> according or based on
done >> conducted
that one of prevention method >> that as one of preventive methods
I could prove >> it can be proven

Lastly, here my example for your thesis statement:

According to the research that I have conducted, it can be proven that instead of giving rigorous punishments, education as one kind of methods of prevention should be implemented in overcoming juvenile delinquencies due to its advantages both for the juvenile themselves and for their social life in long-time period.

Hopefully my corrections above will be helpful. (:

Introduction

Cases of juvenile delinquency have been on the rise despite increased government effort to reduce them. There has been a controversy on how to handle juvenile offenders with some people arguing that they should be treated like adult offenders. The government has considered both public safety and the need to rehabilitate the juvenile offenders in its effort to fight this behavior. However, this has not been effective in reducing the cases of juvenile delinquency. This paper argues that concentrating on reshaping the juvenile offenders and giving them social guidance is the most effective way of reducing juvenile delinquency as opposed to use of punishment. This paper will provide evidence and supporting information on why remolding and social guidance are effective in reducing juvenile delinquency. As an antisocial, illegal and criminal behavioral disorder, juvenile delinquency, remolding and social guidance serves as effective structures of addressing the problem. Accordingly, it is clear that evidence is based on previous studies and expert views on juvenile delinquency. As a result, punishment based programs have failed to reduce juvenile delinquency. The paper pays attention to major causes of juvenile delinquencies and how remolding, social guidance and early interventions are effective in reducing this behavior among the young people.

Reducing juvenile delinquency

Juvenile delinquency has been a major problem affecting modern day societies. Juvenile delinquency is antisocial, criminal or illegal behavior and acts that have become common among children and adolescents. Recently many theories have been formulated to explain the reasons behind high rates of juvenile delinquency. Additionally, various agencies have developed different intervention programs in an effort to reduce this behavior. A combination of these theories and programs has provided a means of understanding this behavior and a platform for developing better intervention measures. Accordingly, social guidance and counseling of juvenile offenders is the most effective means of reducing juvenile delinquency as opposed to use of punishment (Mendel, 2002).

Despite much effort by government agencies to reduce juvenile delinquency among the children, there is notable increase in cases of this behavior. The use of punishment is therefore ineffective in reducing these incidences. On the contrary, preventive interventions measures provide more efficient means of reducing juvenile delinquency. Since this is a rampant problem in all societies, a combined effort is necessary between the government and community in reducing this behavior. According to evidence based on recent studies, juvenile system processing does not help reducing the incidences of child crimes instead it has been found to increase their occurrences. This evidence was based on an evaluation of studies that incorporated 7300 juveniles in 29 researches carried out within a period of 35 years (Petrosino, Turpin-petrosino and Guckenburg, 2010).

Punishment based correctional programs have been found to increase recidivism among the juvenile offenders. There are several ways of measuring recidivism among the juvenile offenders. The harshness and rate of recurrence of crimes committed by released juveniles is the most common measure of recidivism.  This and many other studies therefore emphasize the importance of preventive and social remolding measures in reducing juvenile delinquency. This further shows how the government lacks the capability of reducing juvenile delinquency. The increased recidivism has been associated with policies that handle juvenile offenders in a similar manner as adult offenders. These policies and programs despite of their heavy funding by government, they fail to reduce the juvenile delinquency due to their harsh treatment of these young offenders (Mendel, 2002).

The current social-economic and peer influence constitutes the major causes of juvenile delinquency. Other aspects of life such as family also contribute to the rising cases of juvenile antisocial behavior. Poor family ties, lack of proper supervision, conflict and parental abuse predispose minors to delinquent behavior. Lack of parental connection force minors to associate more with their peers thus increasing their chances of receiving wrong information that lead them into committing delinquent activities. Therefore, early molding and social intervention will serve a better purpose in responding to some of these causes of juvenile delinquency and thus preventing the likelihood of kids behaving in a delinquent manner. Several social factors have contributed to the disappointment of many kids thus increasing their chances of criminal behavior (Mann & Reynolds, 2006).

Kilby (2009) argues that teenagers who believe they will die early in their lives have a high tendency of behaving in delinquent manner since they lack focus and expectation in life. This is mostly caused by the modern day disintegration of social relations that have been previously useful in shaping the youth into responsible and law abiding adult. The emergence of diseases such as AIDS are likely to disillusion the youths pushing them to delinquent behaviors such as drug abuse, robbery, among others. However, with proper molding and social directions these kids have been guided into overcoming these challenges and pursuing their objectives in life. This further stresses the usefulness of social programs and molding of juvenile offenders as a means of reducing juvenile delinquency (Kilby, 2010).

Most government programs and services meant to reduce juvenile delinquency focuses on public safety and rehabilitation of the young offenders. However, these efforts concentrate more on public safety than the young offenders. Mann and Reynolds (2006) argue that these programs’ main objective is to reduce recidivism of the young offenders. The inefficiency of these programs is therefore attributed to lack of total focus on kids and the causes of delinquent behavior among them. In some instances, these programs in their focus on public safety treat juvenile offenders in a similar manner to adult offenders thus hardening them and increasing recidivism (Mann & Reynolds, 2006).

Early interventions focusing on education and social molding of these kids are more effective in reducing juvenile delinquency. The success of this approach is mainly attributed to the aspect of instilling discipline, responsibility and understanding in these kids at early stages of their lives. This is mainly achieved through improved family connections and non-violent treatment of children at all social levels. These enable them to understand legal consequences of delinquent behavior and how to avoid them (Mann & Reynolds, 2006).

The peer influence has been a major factor that predisposes most children to criminal behavior. The peer association and influence among young people has resulted in emergence of gangs all over the United States. According to Bjerregaard and Lozotte (1995), the high numbers of gangs in America is directly connected to the increase in criminal activities. It is through these gangs that the young people acquire criminal behavior as well as weapons used in criminal activities. There is high likelihood of delinquency among the young people belonging to a gang than those who do not belong to a gang. It is only through social molding and programs that are centered on the young people that the gang problem can be tackled effectively. Proper tackling of this gang problem will serve as a preventative measure to juvenile delinquency (Bjerregaard & Lozotte, 1995).

Education also plays a very significant role in molding young people into responsible and law abiding adults. Education based programs provide both parents and children with the right information and thus influencing their decision. These programs educate young people about drugs, sexuality gangs and weapons. This information helps them understand the consequences of their delinquent actions. These programs are more successful in reducing juvenile delinquency since they target the young people in their early stages of life as opposed to punishment based programs. There is notably high likelihood of committing crime among non-school going young people as compared to school going. Other community and social program may focus on recreational activities that provide positive interactions and proper use of time. This reduces idleness that may contribute to criminal behavior and activities among the youths (Mann & Reynolds, 2006).

It is therefore clear that the best way to reduce juvenile delinquency is through molding and social intervention. The preventive measure is the most appropriate means of controlling the rising criminal behavior among the juveniles. The use of non-punishment correctional programs is also effective in rehabilitating juvenile offenders and integrating them back to the society (DPC, 2010).

References:

Bjerregaard, B. & Lizotte, A. (1995). Gun Ownership and Gang Membership. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. Vol 86. (1) PP 37-58.

This article focuses on the relationship between gun ownership, gang membership and gun use. It is a review of literature to determine the effect of gangs on juvenile delinquency. The authors investigate whether the rise in incidences of gangs has led to a rise and sophistication of crimes committed by young people and find out that there is not much research on gangs and rise in juvenile crimes but conclude gang members are more likely to commit more serious crimes than other youth.

DPC. (2010). Delinquency prevention council programs. Retrieved on 14th January 2011 from http://www.helpingkidsnow.com/programs.iml

This is the website of the delinquency prevention council of Jefferson County that gives information on the programs that the council undertakes to mould young people who have been involved in juvenile crime back into law abiding citizens that can be accepted back into society and feel at home. The site elaborates on a number of very innovative programs like those allowing the offenders to meet their victims and reconcile in the offender victim conferencing program.

Kilby, J. (2010). 15% of teens expect to die young. Retrieved on 14th January 2011 from http://www.newser.com/story/63073/15-of-teens-expect-to-die-young.html

This newspaper review article is concerned about a report appearing in the Minneapolis Star Tribune newspapers indicating that up to 15% of young people who engage in risky behavior including crime are convinced that they will not live long

Mann, E. & Reynolds, A. (2006). Early Intervention and Juvenile Delinquency Prevention: Evidence from the Chicago Longitudinal Study. Social Work Research. Vol 30. (3). PP 153+

This journal article is about a study carried out in Chicago to determine the role played by early educational interventions together with family, peer and other factors that impact on juvenile delinquency cases reported in court. It was mainly done among youths from low income backgrounds a majority of whom were African American. The study found out that taking kids to school is key to preventing juvenile delinquency. The authors also prefer interventions to be undertaken at the earliest times possible.

Mendel, R. (2002). Less Hype, More Help: Reducing Juvenile Crime, What Works-And What Doesn’t. New York. DIANE Publishing.

This work is an examination of the justice system and juvenile crime policies. The book investigates notions that have informed the public policies in place namely that, juvenile crime gets worse and worse due to a generation of young people who are super predators, treating juvenile offenders as adults is more effective and others to determine the interventions that work and those that don’t.

Petrosino, A., Turpin-Petrosino, C. & Guckenburg, S. (2010). Formal System Processing of

Juveniles: Effects on Delinquency. The Campbell Collaboration Retrieved on 17th                                             January, 2010 from: http://www.campbellcollaboration.org/news_/formal_processing_reduce_juvenile_delinq            uency.php

This article examines the whether the strict adherence to juvenile justice system controls juvenile delinquency.  In examining this, the authors of this article have reviewed several studies. Based on the studies reviewed, it has been established that formal processing increases delinquent behavior rather than reducing it.

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